International Journal of Psychological Research https://revistas.usb.edu.co/index.php/IJPR <div style="text-align: justify;"> <div> <div> <div><strong><strong>ISSN:</strong>&nbsp;</strong>2011-7922&nbsp; <strong><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.21500/issn.2011-2084" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://doi.org/10.21500/issn.2011-2084</a></strong><strong><br><strong><strong>Periodicity</strong>:</strong>&nbsp;</strong>twice yearly<strong><br><strong>Editor:</strong>&nbsp;</strong>Jorge Mauricio Cuartas</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Journal of the Faculty of Psychology of Universidad de San Buenaventura, which is located in Medellín, dedicated to promoting psychological and neuroscientific knowledge and all its related sciences.</div> </div> <br> <div><strong>INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH</strong>&nbsp;is the electronic version of the printed publication of the same name (ISSN 2011-2084).&nbsp;<br><br>This publication will be of interest to professionals in psychology, psychiatry, neurology, neuroscience and human behavior. In addition, this publication serves as a training resource for students in the areas of mental health, neuroscience, humanities and basic areas related to psychological research.&nbsp;</div> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> </div> Universidad San Buenaventura - USB (Colombia) en-US International Journal of Psychological Research 2011-2084 <span>The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. </span><br /><br /><span>To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. </span><br /><br /><span>The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.</span> Cognitive Neuroscience and How Students Learn: Hype or Hope https://revistas.usb.edu.co/index.php/IJPR/article/view/4047 <p>Editorial</p> Juan F. Martínez Pérez Matías Salvador Bertone ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 12 1 6 8 10.21500/20112084.4047 Anxiety in Athletes: Gender and Type of Sport Differences https://revistas.usb.edu.co/index.php/IJPR/article/view/3552 <p>The study of anxiety, specifically its relations with sociodemographic variables, has been fruitfull in sport psychology research. This study aimed to investigate athletes’ sport anxiety regarding differences in gender and sport played. An application of structural equation modeling was made, with 601 Portuguese athletes. From them 172 (28.6%) were female and 429 (71.4%) were male. They competed in a variety of individual (e.g., athletics, climbing, orienteering, surfing, swimming, tennis; 42.6%) and team sports (e.g., basketball, handball, rugby, soccer, volleyball; 57.4%). Participants’ age ranged from 12 to 47 years (M = 17.44 years; SD = 4.99). After testing the measurement invariance of the first and second-order models, across gender and type of sport (individual vs. team), latent mean comparisons were investigated and Cohen’s d (1988) statistic was computed to obtain the corresponding effect sizes (Kline, 2016). Significant differences were detected between male and female athletes and between individual and team sports. Female and individual sports athletes presented higher levels of general sports anxiety. The results of this research provided evidence that anxiety is appraised differently by athletes based on their gender and type of sport.</p> Marco Estêvão Correia António Rosado ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 12 1 9 17 10.21500/20112084.3552 Potential Therapeutic Targets in People with Emotional Dependency https://revistas.usb.edu.co/index.php/IJPR/article/view/3627 <p>Objective: To examine the relationship between the components of emotional dependency (ED) with anxious, depressive, and impulsive symptomatology. Method: 98 university students (68% women, age M = 20.2 years, ED = 2.19) responded to the ED Questionnaire (EDQ) (Lemos &amp; Londoño, 2006), the Beck Depression Inventory II (Beck, Steer, &amp; Brown, 2011), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck &amp; Steer, 2011), and the short version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale BIS-15S (Spinella, 2007). Results: The structural model indicated that a fear of being alone is associated with separation anxiety, which in turn gives rise to plan modification (PM), search for emotional expression (SEE) and attention-seeking (AS). We found that PM was associated with depression, SEE with anxiety, and that impulsivity could lead to AS. Conclusion: These results identify potential therapeutic targets in people with ED.</p> Mariantonia Lemos Andrés Miguel Vásquez Juan Pablo Román-Calderón ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 12 1 18 27 10.21500/20112084.3627 Neuropsychological Profiles of Three Subtypes of Impulsivity in the General Population: A Young Adults Study https://revistas.usb.edu.co/index.php/IJPR/article/view/3648 <p>The impulsivity construct has been investigated in the psychological literature as both a personality factor and a manifestation of the cognitive functioning of individuals. In addition, an increasing number of studies have shown that impulsivity is not a unitary concept and that it must be conceived of as several subtypes. We investigated whether a self-report test of three types of impulsivity could be a good predictor of cognitive functioning in healthy individuals. The sample was composed of 230 subjects (65% women) with a mean age of 28.4 years (SD = 13.6 years) from the general population of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The sample was evaluated using the Questionnaire on Compulsive Urgency, Sensation Seeking, and Impulsive Improvidence (CUBI-18; Squillace Louhau, &amp; Picón Janerio, 2019), which measures three impulsivity subtypes. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to measure not only executive-attentional functioning, verbal and non-verbal fluency, and speed of processing, but also strategies in the decision-making process. The results showed a differential profile of the three subtypes of impulsivity. Compulsive Urgency was associated with greater executive- attentional difficulties, Impulsive Improvidence with lower fluency in processing nonverbal information, and Sensation Seeking with better general cognitive performance and risk-taking during decision-making.</p> Mario Rodolfo Squillace Louhau Jimena Picón-Janeiro Nicolás Mazzei Alejandra Villar Susana Azzollini ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 12 1 28 40 10.21500/20112084.3648 Psychometric Properties of The Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS) In Ecuadorian Population https://revistas.usb.edu.co/index.php/IJPR/article/view/3745 <p>The objective of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of validity and reliability of the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS) in Ecuadorian university students, since a cultural validation of the instrument has not been found in Ecuador. The study population consisted of a non-probabilistic sample of 600 participants (59.6% women and 40.4% men, M = 21 years, SD = 2.82). The factorial structure was examined with the method of extraction by Parallel Analysis of unweighted least squares (ULS) and of prominent rotation. In both, internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and composite reliability. Like the original version, both subscales have a factorial structure of one dimension and are considered good in terms of reliability, which concludes that the scale meets the criteria of validity and reliability in Ecuador.</p> Geovanny Genaro Reivan-Ortiz Gisela Pineda-Garcia Bello Darío León Parias ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 12 1 41 48 10.21500/20112084.3745 Application of the Graded Response Model to a Scale of Empathic Behavior https://revistas.usb.edu.co/index.php/IJPR/article/view/3753 <p>The results obtained from the application of the Graded Response Model (GRM) to the items of the Scale of Empathic Behavior whose authors are Auné, Abal and Attorresi (2017) are presented. The sample was obtained by accessibility and consisted of Argentine university students (80% Women). None of the items presented uniform or non-uniform gender differential item functioning. The GRM assumptions of local independence and unidimensionality were successfully corroborated. Threshold parameters tended to be located at low levels of the trait scale, whereas discrimination parameters were high. The analysis of the information function showed acceptable precision in low and middle empathic behavior level.</p> Sofía E. Auné Facundo J. P. Abal Horacio F. Attorresi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 12 1 49 56 10.21500/20112084.3753 Selling of Products: The Use of Single-Electrode Wireless EEG in Consumer Behavior https://revistas.usb.edu.co/index.php/IJPR/article/view/4089 <p>&nbsp;The results of three different groups of customers, each exposed to a different sales technique, were compared in order to evaluate which sales technique was more effective for achieving higher levels of sustained attention. The study used the Neurosky headband to measure brainwaves in millivolts. The three compared sales techniques were: 1) the training technique for sale, termed as structured by the AIDA model; 2) the traditional sale, here called unstructured; 3) and a structured technique with the help of simultaneous stimulation by several neuroattentional pathways, prescribed by the developments of the neuroscience of consumption (CN). The results showed a statistically significant difference in achieved sustained attention levels, presenting higher levels in clients exposed to the sales training technique and ower scores in those exposed to one of the techniques used by the CN. These results are discussed in relation to the concept of sustained attention in clients when the stimulation of a single neuroattentional pathway is used as compared to the activation of several pathways simultaneously.</p> Yaromir Muñoz Francisco López Gallego Alejandro Arias Salazar Maribel Serna Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 12 1 57 65 10.21500/20112084.4089 The Clinics of Work: Subjective Distress Derived from Labour Fragmentation https://revistas.usb.edu.co/index.php/IJPR/article/view/4111 <p>Review</p> Sigmar Malvezzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 12 1 66 67 10.21500/20112084.4111