For authors

The purpose of this guide is to provide the necessary and sufficient information for authors to get to know the Revista Guillermo de Ockham and to prepare their manuscripts for subsequent submission. The first commitment that an author assumes with the journal is to know its policy, which sets out the scope, the types of articles published, the ethical policy, the editing process, and other aspects of editorial management. This commitment is a sign of respect for the editor and the entire work group. When an article is received and it meets all the requirements, it assumes the interest and commitment of the authors and guarantees a smooth process. When a submission does not meet the requirements, it is a sign of ignorance and results in the rejection of the proposals. For this reason, we encourage authors to review this guide in detail. (See About the journall)

Intellectual property and copyright

The Revista Guillermo de Ockham considers that any original and unpublished paper, product, or manifestation of the intellect of an author or authors, enjoys legal protection related to copyright (Dirección Nacional de Derechos de Autor). In this regard, the journal guarantees authors the protection of this prerogative with regard to moral rights and understands that the economic rights are assigned by them for the different acts of communication, availability, handling, and distribution of the papers.

When an author submits a paper to the journal, he/she agrees to assign the economic rights to the Universidad de San Buenaventura Cali, publisher of the Revista Guillermo de Ockham, which is formalized with the completion and signing of an assignment of rights, which is sent to the main author once the paper is accepted for publication. The editor will ensure the protection of the moral rights of the authors and will take care that their names and institutional affiliations appear in the paper, that the information published is approved by the author(s), and that no modifications are made to the work without their authorization. Likewise, it will guarantee that no emoluments are charged for the postulation or editing process of the paper, which will be published in open access.

Authors' rights

The Revista Guillermo de Ockham guarantees authors the following rights:

  • The right to be treated with utmost respect throughout the editorial process.
  • The right to be treated equally under journal policy, without discrimination or favoritism.
  • The right to have fair, impartial evaluations conducted by qualified peers and within reasonable timeframes.
  • The right to have all requested changes be clear, justified and in accordance with the objectives of the investigation.
  • The right to maintain the confidentiality of the manuscript and personal information of all authors throughout the process.
  • The right not to pay an article processing charge for the processing of the manuscript.
  • The right to have the final version of the article approved prior to publication.
  • The article must be published in open access, not be used for commercial purposes , and it must be disseminated through every communication channel of the journal.

Authorship criteria

The Revista Guillermo de Ockham adheres to and adopts the authorship criteria recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). For the ICMJE an author must meet the following guidelines:

  • Make a substantial contribution to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data for the work.
  • Write the article or make a critical review of significant intellectual content.
  • Assume responsibility for all aspects of the work, thereby ensuring that queries regarding the accuracy or completeness of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

The journal urges authors not to fall into any of the cases of fraud or violation of publication ethics. (See Fraud and violation of ethics).

Conflict of interest and funding
The authors should disclose to the editor and potential readers any possible conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise, that they may have with the research or publication. Whatever the alternative, i.e., whether a conflict of interest exists, it should be declared and included in a section at the end of the manuscript, before the list of references. Likewise, they should declare if they received economic resources for the development of the research. They are expected to indicate the name of the organization providing the funds, city, country, research project name, years, and code, among others.

About co-authorship

All manuscripts submitted to the journal, if written by two or more authors, must contain, at the end of the document, before the references, a text indicating the specific contribution of each of them, according to CRediT taxonomy. The corresponding author is responsible for managing and recording the contributions in the cover letter. The editorial team expects that the authors have discussed, reviewed, and accepted the contributions that each one made to the work. The authors' contributions are presented below, arranged in 14 roles (See



Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims.


Data curation

Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later re-use.


Formal Analysis

Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyse or synthesize study data.


Funding acquisition

Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication.



Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection.



Development or design of methodology; creation of models.


Project administration

Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution.



Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools.



Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components.



Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team.



Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs.



Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/data presentation.


Writing-original draft

Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation).


Writing-review and editing

Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision – including pre- or post-publication stages.

In collective authorships or co-authorships, all authors involved in the writing are requested:

  • Approval of the final version of the work.
  • Approval of the order of appearance of all participants.
  • Validation and approval of institutional affiliations.

Any additions, deletions, or rearrangements to the list of authors must be made before the manuscript is accepted and they must be approved by the editor. To request such a change, the following should be considered:

  • The corresponding author must justify the reason for the change in the list of authors.
  • The corresponding author must attach written confirmation (email or letter) from all authors agreeing to the addition, deletion, or reordering (this includes confirmation from the author to be added or deleted).

Only under exceptional situations will the editor consider addition, deletion, or rearrangement after approval of the manuscript. While the case is being reviewed, the editor will suspend the publication of the article. If a manuscript has been published, any request approved by the editor will be corrected.

Types of articles and their structures

The Revista Guillermo de Ockham publishes unpublished scientific articles derived from original research papers, review papers, and reflection papers. It also publishes editorials and book reviews. Each of these types of articles is described below along with a description of their structure.

Original research papers

An unpublished document that presents, in a detailed and organized manner, the complete results of a finalized original research project. Originality is related to the dissemination of new knowledge or to the explanation of its contribution. Unpublished refers to the fact that it has not been published or made known to a community by any means (printed or electronic). It presents its final results in complete detail (not partial), i.e., it provides enough information to be reproduced by other researchers. Organized information means that the document follows a logical presentation (it is structured). This type of article follows the following structure: abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion and conclusions (AIM-RD&C).

Cover page, is composed of the following information:

Title of the article. It is the most read part of a scientific article; therefore, authors should strive to make the title informative, descriptive, specific, understandable, objective, and attractive. It should be neither too short nor too long (between 70 and 110 characters, including spaces). It should not be scandalous, sensationalist, or funny, as it creates mistrust. Avoid the use of the following punctuation marks: exclamation marks, question marks, number signs, at signs, slashes, etc.). They should not be misleading and should avoid ambiguous or polysemic words.

Running title. It is the synthesis of the title and should not exceed 40 characters, including spaces.

Authors. The way authors sign their articles is the key formula to recover their bibliography and add to their impact throughout their scientific career, therefore, they should pay close attention and always sign the same. The journal suggests to all its authors to choose a unique signature in IraLIS (IraLIS) and requests that they have their respective Orcid (Orcid) preserving their signature.

Affiliation. It refers to the institution that financed or supported the research. Contact addresses should be included: postal, telephone, e-mail and personal website.

Correspondence. It refers to the author responsible for sending the manuscript and the intermediary between the authors and the journal. It should be someone who controls all aspects of the research, is assertive in communication, and has a good command of the language.

Financing. It includes all the sources that supported the research and the writing of the article. Please adopt the following format: name of the institution and project code e.g., "This research was supported by the National Institutes of... [subgrant numbers wwww, xxxx,]; the University... [research project number yyyy]; the Institute of... [grant number zzzz]." If no funding was provided for the research, include the following sentence: "This research did not receive any specific grants from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or non-profit sectors".

Declaration of interests. Authors must declare their conflicts of interest even if they do not have any (there is a corresponding form). A conflict arises when the author or authors have personal, academic, financial, political, etc. relationships that bias or affect the research or publication.

Availability of data. Authors should declare whether all the data necessary and sufficient for the understanding of the research are found in the article or whether part of them are housed in databases, annexes, or complementary material of the article.

Disclaimer. Authors must declare whether the expressions, opinions, or interpretations set forth in the article is a personal position or an official position of their institutions.

Acknowledgments. If the research or writing of the article was accompanied by people who did not meet the criteria for authorship, this is the space to express their gratitude (e.g.: people who helped in data collection, reviewed the text, gave their opinions, contributed to bibliography and reviewed statistical data or graphs, among others).

Summary. After the title, it is the most read part of the article. It has been identified as the most important paragraph and most of the time it is the most neglected. Therefore, this section should be the most elaborate, polished, precise and the one that gathers all the research. It should be in Spanish and English. As it is short (250 words maximum), the abstract should be structured as follows: introduction (I), methodology (M), results (R), and conclusion (C). The introduction explains the subject, presents the objective, the question or hypothesis, and justifies the study. The methodology presents the methods adopted, the participants, the variables, the instruments applied, and the analyses used. The results present the most important findings and the conclusion states the implications, hypothesizes solutions, or possible explanations of the results.

Key words. These are standardized terms that increase the probability of retrieval of the article by search engines. An average of twelve words is recommended (no less than ten). Do not use phrases. The words must be standardized, i.e., recognized by databases. For this purpose, it is suggested to select them in the thesauri. The journal recommends the UNESCO Thesaurus. Keywords should be in Spanish and English.

Introduction. Presentation of the research topic, its background, the problem, the theoretical concepts, the objective or hypothesis, and the justification of the study.

Methodology. This is one of the most important sections of the article. It is its backbone and it is from this section that the results, discussions, and conclusions are derived. Editors, peers, and researchers return to this section to make decisions, and according to its soundness, there will be confidence in the findings. Therefore, the authors should take care to provide sufficient, detailed, and clear information so that others can replicate the study. It should also state that the research was approved by an ethics committee or a body acting in its stead (when the study involves humans or animals). It must have the following sections:

Participants. It describes the population that accompanied the study (relevant sociodemographic variables) and how it was selected (inclusion and exclusion criteria). They should be representative samples.

Instruments. It states the main and secondary objectives of the study, reports the methods used, describes each of the variables and the instruments selected for their measurement (name, manufacturer, etc.), states the reasons for the selection of the instruments (reliability, validity, and limitations), describes in sufficient detail the procedure so that others can reproduce it without error.

Statistics. It describes in a precise manner the statistical methods used so that other researchers can apply them to the data and obtain the same results (the editor or peer reviewers may request it to confirm the findings). Whenever possible, present confidence intervals and avoid relying only on hypothesis tests such as P-values, as they do not convey important information about effect size. Define or describe statistical terms, abbreviations, symbols, software, and versions used.

Results. Present and describe the results clearly, precisely, and in a logical sequence, and present the most important findings in the first instance. Authors should rely on tables and figures and restrict themselves to only those necessary. Avoid repeating them. Make use of graphs as an alternative to synthesizing tables with many records. Be as technical as possible with statistical terms to avoid misinterpretation.

Discussion. It should begin with an introductory paragraph summarizing the main findings. it focuses on each one of them and on the possible explanations in the light of the theory or conceptual framework adopted. It relates the results to the objective or hypothesis and discusses them with the selected bibliography. According to the nature of the study, it discusses the association of the variables. Avoid repeating information developed in previous sections.

Conclusions. It should do the following: emphasize the most important findings, link the results to the main objective, hypothesize possible explanations, solutions, and applications, leave open questions as a point of interest for other researchers, point out observed trends show strengths, share limitations, and give recommendations.

References. Caution should be exercised in the selection of sources since many of them are misleading, fraudulent, and lacking in rigor; primary sources should be preferred over secondary ones. In this regard, the following recommendations are given:

  • Sources should be from reputable scientific journals or publishers, i.e., those that practice peer review.
  • Searches should be made on specialized databases.
  • Citation and reference should be made of what the authors had at hand in their readings.
  • Primary sources should be consulted and reference should be made to the originals.
  • There should be broad coverage, both nationally and internationally (it is recommended that 30% be Latin American sources and the remaining 70% be from outside the region).
  • Sources should be sufficient, relevant to the topic being developed, current, and up to date.
  • Frequent self-citation or citing works with no thematic relation or relevance to the study should be avoided.

Addendums or complementary material. If there is relevant information that could not be included in the body of the article and that is considered an important piece to understand and improve the presentation of the research, the authors can leave it as an annex. If the annex is very extensive, it is suggested to leave it in a separate file (as complementary material), otherwise, it can go at the end of the article after the references. The editor will evaluate the pertinence of its inclusion. Supplementary documents will be published exactly as received (Excel, PowerPoint, Word, etc.). A concise and descriptive caption should be provided for each file and if changes are made to the material during the process, an updated submission should be made.

Review papers

A scientific or technical document that compiles, systematizes, and analyzes the published literature on a given topic to provide answers to specific problems (Cué Brugueras et al., 2008). Its strength lies in the critical analysis of the available literature, using systematic methods to arrive at results that can be replicated. Unlike the research article, this type of article reviews a larger proportion of references (doubling or tripling its quantity).

The review article follows the same structure of the original research article (AIM-RD&C), but with a minor variation in its methodology. Therefore, the journal requests to take into account what has been described so far and apply the systematic review methodology of the Prisma statement. It also recommends reviewing the official publication of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The Prisma Statement or reviewing this version in Spanish: Listas guía de comprobación de revisiones sistemáticas y metaanálisis: declaración Prisma. It also asks to include all the information required in the cover page item of the original research article.

Reflection papers

Scientific or technical document that analyzes research results from an analytical, interpretative and critical perspective. The reflection is focused on a specific issue, of interest and topicality. Although it is based on a particular (author) or collective (group of authors) position, it must be based on evidence, argued, and presented in a clear and organized manner, in such a way that it achieves thematic mastery, soundness in the exposition of arguments and orientation to new ideas or perspectives. A reflection article is presented by a researcher with experience in the subject and who has focused on it for a large part of his or her research career. Their position must be well justified and have clear consequences that can be derived from their opinions.

The structure of the reflection article consists of an abstract, introduction, reflection, conclusions and references (AIRC&R). The introduction presents the topic, background, theoretical concepts, gaps, objectives, and justification. The reflection is the core part; it develops the researcher's point of view through an objective and critical analysis based on data or reliable sources and leads an argumentative thread toward new ideas or perspectives. Regarding conclusions and references, see sections of the research article. It also requests to include all the information required in the cover page item of the original research article.


The editorial is a document written by the editor or by a guest that the editorial team considers pertinent. Its development may obey the presentation of the issue, deal with a topic of interest, analyze a social situation related to the publication or propose emerging issues, among other aspects that have a direct relationship with the journal.

Book reviews

A document of short length that makes a commentary or reflection on a book published in relation to the thematic area of the journal. This document discusses the objective and the contributions it has to the public and makes a critical analysis of the subject matter and its current relevance. It also mentions the importance and relevance of its disciplinary area and gives recommendations to readers.

Note: Editorial and book reviews do not have a specifically defined structure, which may resemble a short essay or literary text, respectively. In addition, they are not evaluated and do not have an abstract or keywords.

Preparation of manuscripts

This section provides guidance on the formal aspects that govern the preparation of manuscripts prior to their submission to the journal.

The typeface for the manuscript setting is Times New Roman, 12 point size.

Page Layout
The paper size should be letter size (21.59 x 27.94 cm). The margins are the default margins provided by the Word program: 2.5 cm on top and bottom; 3.0 cm left and right margins. The line spacing should be 1.5.

Article length and number of citations
The journal has defined the following length for each of the types of articles and an approximate number of sources:

  • Original research papers. Length of 6,000 words and a minimum of 30 bibliographic sources.
  • Review papers. Length of 9,000 words and an average of 50 bibliographic sources.
  • Reflection papers. Length of 5,000 words and a minimum of 30 bibliographic sources.
  • Editorial. Length between 1,000 and 2,000 words and a maximum of 10 bibliographic sources.
  • Book reviews. Maximum length of 1,000 words.

The purpose of a table is to synthesize large volumes of information; therefore, authors are requested that its range be between 5 and 15 rows, or alternatively, that it does not exceed the size of one page. For tables exceeding this size, it is recommended to represent the information with graphs. Authors should follow the APA 7th ed. guidelines for their construction and take into account these recommendations:

  • Tables should be editable (they should not be inserted into the article as an image or figure).
  • They should be numbered consecutively and with Arabic numerals (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, etc.).
  • They must be named in the article before their appearance. (e.g. In Table 1 you can see...).
  • If they have accompanying notes, they should be on the outside and at the end of the table.
  • Authors should make sure that they are not duplicating information (described elsewhere in the article).
  • Avoid using shading or patterns.
  • Avoid inserting figures or images in the cells.

A figure is any graphic element (photo, figure, graph, illustration, drawing, etc.). A figure represents the research data visually and synthetically. Authors should follow the guidelines of the APA 7th Ed. for its construction and take into account these recommendations:

  • Figures should be high resolution to avoid pixilation or misinterpretation of the data (minimum resolution of 300 dots per inch).
  • They should be numbered consecutively and with Arabic numerals. (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, etc.).
  • They must be named in the paper before their appearance (e.g., in Figure 1 you can see...).
  • They must have a note at the end and outside the figure to allow its description.
  • Authors should make sure that they are not duplicating information (described elsewhere in the article).
  • If figures contain text, authors should use Times New Roman or similar fonts.
  • A copy of the figures should be sent to the journal in their source format (jpg, png, tiff, Power-Point, Excel, etc.) with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (dots per inch).

Formulas and equations
If the article has formulas or equations, please follow the recommendations below:

  1. They must be inserted with the help of Microsoft Word: Insert/Example.
  2. They cannot be inserted in the article as an image or figure.
  3. They should be numbered consecutively and with Arabic numerals (e.g. Eq. 1, Eq. 2, Eq 3, etc.).
  4. They must be named in the article before their appearance (e.g., Eq. 1 represents...).

Citation standards
The citation and referencing standards adopted by the Revista Guillermo de Ockham are those of the American Psychological Association (APA) seventh edition. The journal is strict in its application and will return articles to the authors when they have not been applied correctly. In general, the author and the year of publication appear in the manuscript within parentheses (author, year), this form of citation is known as the Harvard method. The bibliography is at the end of the article and is listed alphabetically. To avoid errors, the use of a bibliographic manager (e.g. Mendeley, EndNote, Zotero, etc.) is suggested. It is also requested to incorporate the DOI of each reference (as long as it has the identifier) or the URL of the consultation (this applies to all digital documents). Authors should check that there is correspondence between citations and references, and vice versa, i.e., that every citation is referenced and every reference is cited. If there are citations that have no reference, authors should include the reference or, failing that, delete the citation. If there is a reference without a citation, check if the citation is missing and include it; otherwise, delete the reference.

Abbreviations must be placed in parentheses after being named for the first time; the abbreviation is then used without parentheses. For example: Unión de Trabajadores de Colombia (UTC). Then, UTC.

Direct quotations
Occasionally, authors need to make use of direct quotes for possible analysis or demonstrations. If possible, paraphrasing is suggested as a sign of social appropriation of knowledge (giving due credit). If this is not the option, authors should take into account the following guidelines on direct quotations.

Short quotations
They are less than forty words and are included in the text being written between double quotation marks. The author, year and page(s) should be in parentheses at the end of the quotation, e.g. (Author, year, p xx) or (Author, year, pp. xx-xx).

Block quotations
They are less than forty words and are included in the text being written between double quotation marks. The author, year and page(s) should be in parentheses at the end of the quotation, e.g. (Author, year, p xx) or (Author, year, pp. xx-xx).

They are used in exceptional cases. The recommendation is not to do so and to keep the attention of the reader on the central content to be developed. If necessary, it should be incorporated using the same writing style that is being used in the manuscript.

Authors are requested to use appropriate and respectful language that recognizes diversity, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunity. Authors should ensure that writing is free of bias, stereotypes, jargon, or cultural assumptions. We advise seeking neutrality, not making assumptions about the beliefs of readers as well as not handling content that implies that one individual is superior to another on the basis of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability, or health status. The journal reserves the right to correct inclusive language, which is presented more as a political stance than an idiomatic position.

Research data and reproducibility

Data are those results derived from observations or experiments that validate research findings; they do not include text in the form of a paper or published materials (supplements or annexes). Reproducibility, on the other hand, has to do with the possibility of repeating the same results found by an investigation. In order to give greater confidence to our scientific community, the editorial team encourages all authors to publish research data in repositories available for this purpose. The journal plans to implement a platform or system for the publication of research data in the future. However, we invite authors to share their data and any other type of material used in research projects, such as methods, software, code, and algorithms, among others, that allow reproducibility.

As deemed necessary, the editor may ask the authors for the research data to be reviewed by peer reviewers. In this sense, we expect the authors' full willingness and cooperation to move forward with the review process when required. Currently our journal publishes the following note in the final version of the paper: "Data availability. All relevant data can be found in the paper. For further information, please contact the correspondence author".