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The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the cognitive processes and the academic performance by a non-experimental correlational study with a cross-sectional design. Participants were 60 students between 14 and 17 years old, who were randomly selected from high school tenth grade without a history of personality disorder or intellectual disability. Academic performance was evaluated from the school average reported by educational documents. Cognitive processes measured were: focused and sustained attention, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control, delayed visual memory, auditory verbal learning and delayed auditory verbal memory, visualconstructive praxis, naming function of language and verbal fluency. A neuropsychological battery was used for that purpose. According to the Rho Spearman, the results indicated that there is a statistically significant relationship between the two following cognitive processes and academic performance: sustained attention (p=0.01) and the naming function of language (p=0.05).