How to Cite
Rodríguez Ortiz, A. M., Ruiz Ortega, F. J., & Hernández Rodríguez, J. C. (2023). Argumentative Models: Typological Analysis and its Applicability in the Classroom. Revista Guillermo De Ockham, 21(2), 639–656. https://doi.org/10.21500/22563202.5980 (Original work published March 29, 2023)
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In the last two decades, school has focused its interest on the development of argumentative processes as an important tool in different fields of knowledge and the development of critical thinking. Currently, people can find different argumentation models raised by various writers. Despite being quite a few, the truth is that there does not seem to be a clear direction for orienting and selecting the models according to their need or convenience for applying them in the classroom. Therefore, this article depicts the results of a comparative analytical research of main argumentative models and their representatives: Aristotle (1982, 1988), Gotama (1913; the nyāya school or Indian logic), Socrates (Platón, 2010, Crát.), Empirical Sixth (1996), the Vitandine philosophers (Indian negative argumentation), School of logic (Shi), School of names –Chinese–, Toulmin (2007), De Zubiría (2001) and De Zubiría (2006), Díaz (2014), Adam (1992), Van Dijk (1996a, 1996b), Van Eemeren (2019), Van Eemeren and Grootendorst (2002), Perelman (2007), and Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1989). This analysis allowed classifying all these models into four types (formal, conceptual, persuasive and pragmadialectic) based on their elements and structure. Once this analysis has been carried out, the applicability of each of them in the teaching processes is evaluated according of the following criteria: contributions to the construction of knowledge; implied communication skills; favored thought processes; attitudes, values, and emotions that model allows to develop; limitations of each model; as well as the type of population for which they are most relevant. In summary, it is intended to offer tools that allow teachers and researchers to recognize the main existing argumentative models, their characteristics, possible benefits, and the scope of their application in the classroom.



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