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The sixteenth goal of the United Nations’ seventeen sustainable development goals (SDGs) seeks to promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development. Therefore including the reduction of all forms of violence and violence-related deaths, the reduction of illicit arms and capital flow, the recovery and return of stolen property, and the fight against all forms of organized crime among others. Understanding the effects of conflicts clarifies the linkage and interdependence of the peace agenda and the realization of the majority of the SDGs. Kenya, which is a party to the resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations, has in its history experienced episodes of inter-community conflicts arising from competition for control of scarce natural resources among pastoral communities, election related violence, and clashes arising from land boundary disputes. On the basis of the experiences of ethnic conflicts during election periods and literature review, this paper discusses the economic effects of inter-community conflicts in Kenya and points out how such effects make peace building and conflict resolution critical to the achievement of other SDGs.
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