Rostral Middle Frontal Volumetric Differences in Bipolar Offspring versus Community Controls Offspring


Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Bipolar Disorder
high-risk population
bipolar offspring’s
prefrontal cortex

How to Cite

Palacio, J. D., Gomez-Valero, M. A., Bustamante-Gomez, P. A., Arroyave-Sierra, P., Vargas-Upegui, C. D., Pineda-Zapata, J., Castrillon, G., Aguirre-Acevedo, D. C., & Lopez-Jaramillo, C. (2019). Rostral Middle Frontal Volumetric Differences in Bipolar Offspring versus Community Controls Offspring: Neuroanatomic volume comparison study. International Journal of Psychological Research, 12(2), 48–58.


Neuroanatomical findings in the anterior limbic network in bipolar disorder (BD) adults have not been replicated in other populations such as bipolar offspring (BO). The aim of this study was to compare some brain areas volumes between BO with and without a lifetime affective disorder (AD) to a group of community control offspring (CCO). Methods: A descriptive observational cross-sectional study was carried out, with multiple comparison groups. Seven subjects (11-17 years old) from the BO with AD group were compared to seven subjects from the BO without AD group and seven subjects from the CCO group (match by age, gender and Tanner stage). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed with a Philips 3 Teslas device and volumetric segmentation was performed with the Freesurfer image analysis suite. Results: A larger size was found in the right middle frontal rostral region in the BO with AD group compared to the other two groups (p = 0.041). A higher volume was also found in BO with AD group in the left pars opercularis (Cohen d = 0.63) and in the right cingulate isthmus (d = 0.53) when compared with BO without AD group, and in the right hippocampus (d = 0.53) when compared to CCO group. A smaller volume was found in the BO without AD group versus CCO group in the left anterior caudate (d = 0.6). The BO groups (with and without AD) compared to CCO have a higher volume in the right frontal pole (d = 0.52). These volumetric differences can be attributed to the condition of BO with AD.


American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (Fifth Edit). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Axelson, D., Goldstein, B., Goldstein, TRMonk, K., Yu, H., Hickey, M., & Al., E. (2015). Diagnostic Precursors to Bipolar Disorder in Offspring of Parents With Bipolar Disorder: A Longitudinal Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(7), 638-646. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14010035.

Baroni, A., & Castellanos, F. X. (2015). Neuroanatomic and cognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the era of “high definition” neuroimaging. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 30, 1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2014.08.005

Bauer, I., Sanches, M., Suchting, R., Green, C., Fangary, N., Zunta-Soares, G., & Soares, J. (2014). Amygdala enlargement in unaffected offspring of bipolar parents. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 59, 200-205. doi: 10.1016%2Fj.jpsychires.2014.08.023

Bearden, C., Soares, J., Klunder, A., Nicoletti, M., Dierschke, N., Hayashi, K., … Thompson, PM. (2008). Three-dimensional mapping of hippocampal anatomy in adolescents with bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 47(5), 515-525. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31816765ab

Birmaher, B., Axelson, D., Monk, K., Kalas, C., Goldstein, B., Hickey, M., … Brent, D.. (2009). Lifetime psychiatric disorders in school-aged offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring study. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 66(3), 287-296. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.546

Birmaher, B., Axelson, D., Strober, M., Gill, M., Valeri, S., Chiappetta, L., … Keller, M. (2006). Clinical course of children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(2), 175-183. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.2.175

Blumber, H., Kaufman, J., Martin, A., Whiteman, R., Zhang, J., Gore, J., … Peterson, BS. (2003). Amygdala and hippocampal volumes in adolescents and adults with bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 60(12), 1201-1208. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.60.12.1201

Blumberg, H., Fredericks, C., Wang, F., Kalmar, J., Spencer, L., Papademetris, X., & Al., E. (2005). Preliminary evidence for persistent abnormalities in amygdala volumes in adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 7(6), 570-576. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2005.00264.x

Carel, J., & Leger, J. (2008). Clinical practice. Precocious puberty. The New England Journald of Medicine, 358(22), 2366-2377. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp0800459

Casey, B., Jones, R., & Hare, T. (2008). The adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 111-126. doi: 10.1196/annals.1440.010

Chang, C., Yu, S., McQuoid, D., Messer, D., Taylor, W., Singh, M., … Payne, M. (2011). Reduction of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex gray matter in late-life depression. Psychiatry Research, 193(1), 1-6. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.01.003

Chang, K., Karchemskiy, A., Barnea-Goraly, N., Garrett, A., Simeonova, D., & Reiss, A. (2005). Reduced amygdalar gray matter volume in familial pediatric bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 44(6), 565-573. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000159948.75136.0d

Chiu, S., Widjaja, F., Bates, M., Voelbel, G., Pandina, G., Marble, J., … Hendren, RL. (2008). Anterior cingulate volume in pediatric bipolar disorder and autism. Journal of Affective Disorders, 1005(1–3), 93-99. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2007.04.019

de la Peña, F. R., Rosetti, M. F., Rodríguez-Delgado, A., Villavicencio, L. R., Palacio, J. D., Montiel, C., … Ulloa, R. E. (2018). Construct validity and parent–child agreement of the six new or modified disorders included in the Spanish version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia present and Lifetime Version DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL-5). Journal of Psychiatric Research, 101, 28-33. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.02.029

DelBello, M., Zimmerman, M., Mills, N., Getz, G., & Strakowski, S. (2004). Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of amygdala and other subcortical brain regions in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord, 6(1), 43-52.

Desikan, R., Segonne, F., Fischi, B., Quinns, B., Dickerson, B., Blacker, D., & Al., E. (2006). An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest. NeuroImage, 31(3), 968-980. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.01.021

Dickstein, D., Milham, M., Nugent, A., Drevets, W., Charney, D., Pine, D., & Al., E. (2005). Frontotemporal alterations in pediatric bipolar disorder: results of a voxel-based morphometry study. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 62(7), 734-741. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.7.734

Duffy, A., Jones, S., Gooday, S., & Bentall, R. (2015). Candidate Risks Indicators for Bipolar Disorder: Early Intervention Opportunities in High-Risk Youth. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 19(1), 1–10. doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyv071

Emsell, L., & McDonald, C. (2009). The structural neuroimaging of bipolar disorder. Int Rev Psychiatry, 21(4), 297-313. doi:10.1080/09540260902962081

Falluca, E., MacMaster, F., Haddad, J., Easter, P., Dick, R., May, G., & Al., E. (2011). Distinguishing between major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder in children by measuring regional cortical thickness. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 68(5), 527-533. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.36

Fears, S., Schur, R., Sjouwerman, R., Service, S., Araya, C., Araya, X., … Bearden, CE. (2015). Brain structure-function associations in multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 138(Pt. 7), 2087-2102. doi:10.1093/brain/awv106

Fears, S., Service, S., Kremeyer, B., Araya, C., Araya, X., Bejarano, J., … Bearden, CE. (2014). Multisystem component phenotypes of bipolar disorder for genetic investigations of extended pedigrees. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(4), 375-387. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.4100

Fischi, B., & Dale, A. (2000). Measuring the thickness of the human cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance images. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(20), 11050-11055. doi:10.1073/pnas.200033797

Frazier, J., Chiu, S., Breeze, J., Makris, N., Lange, N., Kennedy, D., … Biederman, J. (2005). Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging of limbic and thalamic volumes in pediatric bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(7), 1256-1265. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.7.1256

Frey, B., Andreazza, A., Houenou, J., Jamain, S., Goldstein, B., Frye, M., & Al., E. (2013). Biomarkers in bipolar disorder: a positional paper from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Biomarkers Task Force. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 47(4), 321-332. doi:10.1177/0004867413478217

Goddings, A., Mills, K., Clasen, L., Giedd, J., Viner, R., & Blakemore, S.-J. (2014). The influence of puberty on subcortical brain development. NeuroImage2, 88, 242-251. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.09.073

Goldstein, B., Strober, M., Axelson, D., Goldstein, T., Gill, M., Hower, H., & Al, E. (2013). Predictors of first-onset substance use disorders during the prospective course of bipolar spectrum disorders in adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 52(10), 1026-1037. doi:10.1016%2Fj.jaac.2013.07.009

Hajek, T., Cullis, J., Novak, T., Kopecek, M., Blagdon, R., Propper, L., … Alda, M. (2013). Brain structural signature of familial predisposition for bipolar disorder: replicable evidence for involvement of the right inferior frontal gyrus. Biological Psychiatry, 73(2), 144-152. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.06.015

Hajek, T., Gunde, E., Bernier, D., Slaney, C., Propper, L., Grof, P., … Alda, M. (2008). Subgenual cingulate volumes in affected and unaffected offspring of bipolar parents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 108(3), 263-269. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2007.10.024

Hajek, T., Gunde, E., Slaney, C., Propper, L., MacQueen, G., Duffy, A., & Alda, M.. (2009a). Amygdala and hippocampal volumes in relatives of patients with bipolar disorder: a high-risk study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 54(11), 726-733. doi:10.1177/070674370905401102

Hajek, T., Gunde, E., Slaney, C., Propper, L., MacQueen, G., Duffy, A., & Alda, M.. (2009b). Striatal volumes in affected and unaffected relatives of bipolar patients--high-risk study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43(7), 724-729. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.10.008

Hajek, T., Kopecek, M., Kozeny, J., Gunde, E., Alda, M., & Hoschl, C. (2009). Amygdala volumes in mood disorders--meta-analysis of magnetic resonance volumetry studies. Journal of Affective Disorders, 115(3), 395-410. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2008.10.007

Hajek, T., Kozeny, J., Kopecek, M., Alda, M., & Hoschl, C. (2008). Reduced subgenual cingulate volumes in mood disorders: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience : JPN, 33(2), 91-99.

Hibar, D., Westlye, N., Donan, N., Jahanshad, N., Cheung, J., Ching, C., … Andreassen, OA.. (2018). Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: an MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group. Molecular Psychiatry, 23(4), 932-942. doi:10.1038/mp.2017.73

Hospital, M. (2016). Desikan-Killiany Atlas. Cortical parcelation. Freesurfer. Retrieved from MGH.

Houenou, J., Frommberger, J., Carde, S., Glasbrenner, M., Diener, C., Leboyer, M., & Al., E. (2011). Neuroimaging-based markers of bipolar disorder: evidence from two meta-analyses. Journal of Affective Disorders, 132(3), 344-355. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.03.016

Iraurgi, I. (2009). Evaluación de resultados clínicos ( II ): Las medidas de la significación clínica o los tamaños del efecto. Norte de Salud Mental, 34, 94-110.

Karchemskiy, A., Garrett, A., Hower, H., Adleman, N., Simeonova, D., Alegria, D., … Chang, K. (2011). Amygdalar, hippocampal, and thalamic volumes in youth at high risk for development of bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Research, 194(3), 319-325. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.03.006

Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., Flynn, C., Moreci, P., … Ryan, N. (1997). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 36(7), 980-988. doi:10.1097/00004583-199707000-00021

Kaur, S., Sassi, R., Axelson, D., Nicoletti, M., Brambilla, P., Monkul, E., … Soares, JC. (2005). Cingulate cortex anatomical abnormalities in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(9), 1637-1643. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.9.1637

Kelley, R., Chang, K., Garrett, A., Alegria, D., Thompson, P., Hower, H., & Reiss, A.. (2013). Deformations of amygdala morphology in familial pediatric bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord, 15(7), 795-802. doi:10.1111/bdi.12114

Kempton, M., Geddes, J., Ettinger, U., Williams, S., & Grasby, P. (2008). Meta-analysis, database, and meta-regression of 98 structural imaging studies in bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 65(9), 1017-1032. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.65.9.1017

Khundakar, A., Morris, C., Oakley, A., McMeekin, W., & Thomas, A. (2009). Morphometric analysis of neuronal and glial cell pathology in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in late-life depression. The British Journal of Psychiatry : The Journal of Mental Science, 195(2), 163-169. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.052688

Krain, A., & Castellanos, F. X. (2006). Brain development and ADHD. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(4), 433-444. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.01.005

Ladouceur, C., Almeida, J., Birmaher, B., Axelson, D., Nau, S., Kalas, C., … Phillips, ML. (2008). Subcortical gray matter volume abnormalities in healthy bipolar offspring: potential neuroanatomical risk marker for bipolar disorder? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 47(5), 532-539. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e318167656e

Lancaster, T. (2018). Evidence for association between familial bipolar risk and ventral striatal volume. Journal of Affective Disorders, 232, 69-72. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.015

Lenox, R., Gould, T., & Manji, H. (2002). Endophenotypes in bipolar disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 114(4), 391-406. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10360

Liu, I., Howe, M., Garrett, A., Karchemskiy, A., Kelley, R., Alegria, D., … Chang, K. (20011). Striatal volumes in pediatric bipolar patients with and without comorbid ADHD. Psychiatry Research, 194(1), 14-20. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.06.008

MacMaster, F., Langevin, L., Jaworska, N., Kemp, A., & Sembo, M. (2014). Corpus callosal morphology in youth with bipolar depression. Bipolar Disord, 16(8), 889-893. doi:10.1111/bdi.12247

MacMillan, S., Szeszko, P., Moore, G., Madden, R., Lorch, E., Ivey, J., & Al., E. (2013). Increased amygdala: hippocampal volume ratios associated with severity of anxiety in pediatric major depression. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 13(1), 65-73. doi:10.1089/104454603321666207

Marshall, W., & Tanner, J. (1969). Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 44(235), 291-303. doi:10.1136/2Fadc.44.235.291

Marshall, W., & Tanner, J. (1970). Variations in the pattern of pubertal changes in boys. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 45(239), 13-23. doi:10.1136/2Fadc.45.239.13

Matsuo, K., Kopecek, M., Nicoletti, M., Hatch, J., Watanabe, Y., Nery, F., … Soares, JC. (2012). New structural brain imaging endophenotype in bipolar disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 17(4), 412-420. doi:10.1038/mp.2011.3

McGuffin, P., Rjsdijk, F., Andrew, M., Sham, P., Katz, R., & Cardno, A. (2003). The heritability of bipolar affective disorder and the genetic relationship to unipolar depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 60(5), 497-502. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.60.5.497

Nery, F., Monkul, E., & Lafer, B. (2013). Gray matter abnormalities as brain structural vulnerability factors for bipolar disorder: A review of neuroimaging studies of individuals at high genetic risk for bipolar disorder. Australian and New Zeland Journal of Psychiatry, 47(12), 1124-1135.

Nery, F., Norris, M., Eliassen, J., Weber, W., Blom, T., Barzman, D., … DelBello, MP. (2017). White matter volumes in youth offspring of bipolar parents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 209, 246-253. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.11.023

Palacio-Ortíz, J. D., Uribe-Villa, E., Duque-Ríos, P., Gutiérrez-Briceño, P., Zapata-Henao, V., Peña-Quintero, C. E., & López-Jaramillo, C. (2015). Descripción de perfiles psicopatológicos y neurocognitivos de hijos de pacientes con trastorno bipolar tipo I dentro un programa de intervencion multimodal: PRISMA. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, 44(2), 150-158. doi:10.1016/j.rcp.2015.03.004

Palacio-Ortiz, J., Peña-Quintero, C., Gomez-Valero, M., Bustamante-Gomez, P., Arroyave-Sierra, P., Vargas-Upegui, C., & Lopez-Jaramillo, C. (2017a). Lifetime psychiatric disorders: A comparison study between offspring of parents with bipolar disorder type-I versus the offspring of community controls parents. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, 46(3), 129-139. doi:10.1016/j.rcp.2016.06.007

Palacio-Ortiz, J., Peña-Quintero, C., Gomez-Valero, M., Bustamante-Gomez, P., Arroyave-Sierra, P., Vargas-Upegui, C., & Lopez-Jaramillo, C. (2017b). Trastornos psiquiátricos a través de la vida: un estudio de comparación de hijos de padres con trastorno afectivo bipolar tipo I frente a hijos de padres controles de la comunidad. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatria, 46(3), 129-139. doi:10.1016/j.rcp.2016.06.007

Palacio, C., Garcia, J., Arbelaez, M., Sanchez, R., Aguirre, B., Garces, I., … Ospina, J. (2004). Validation of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). Colombia Biomedica: Revista Instituto Nacional de Salud, 24(1), 56-62.

Peterson, B., Warner, V., Bansal, R., Zhu, H., Hao, X., Liu, J., … Weissman, M. (2009). Cortical thinning in persons at increased familial risk for major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(15), 6273-6278. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805311106

Pfeifer, J., Welge, J., Strakowski, S., Adler, C., & DelBello, M. (2008). Meta-analysis of amygdala volumes in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 47(11), 1289-1298. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e318185d299

Reynolds, S., Carrey, N., Jaworska, N., Langevin, L., Yang, X., & Macmaster, F. (2014). Cortical thickness in youth with major depressive disorder. BMC Psychiatry, 14(83). doi:10.1186/2F1471-244X-14-83

Rosso, I., Cintron, C., Steingard, R., Renshaw, P., Young, A., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2005). Amygdala and hippocampus volumes in pediatric major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 57(1), 21-26. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.10.027

Rosso, I., Killgore, W., Cintron, C., Gruber, S., Tohen, M., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2007). Reduced amygdala volumes in first-episode bipolar disorder and correlation with cerebral white matter. Biol Psychiatry, 61(6), 743-749. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.07.035

Shaffer, D., Gould, M., Brasic, J., Ambrosini, P., Fisher, P., Bird, H., & Aluwahlia, S. (1983). A Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS). Arch Gen Psychiatry, 40(11), 1228-1231. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790100074010

Singh, M., DelBello, M., Adler, C., Stanford, K., & Strakwowski, S. (2008). Neuroanatomical characterization of child offspring of bipolar parents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 47(5), 526-531. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e318167655a

Strakwowski, S., Adler, C., Almeida, J., Altshuler, L., Blumberg, H., Chang, K., & Al., E. (2012). The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a consensus model. Bipolar Disorders, 14(4), 313-325. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.01022.x

Ulloa-Flores, R., Ortiz, S., Higuera, F., Nogales, I., Fresan, A., Apiquian, R., … de la Peña, F. (2006). Estudio de fiabilidad interevaluador de la version en espanol de la entrevista Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children--Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) [Interrater reliability of the Spanish version of Schedule or Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children--Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL)]. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, 34(1), 36-40.

van Eijndhoven, P., van Wingen, G., Katzenbauer, M., Groen, W., Tepest, R., Fernandez, G., & Al., E. (2013). Paralimbic cortical thickness in first-episode depression: evidence for trait-related differences in mood regulation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 70(12), 1477-1486. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12121504

Van Meter, A., Moreira, A., & Youngstrom, E. (2011). Meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of pediatric bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(9), 1250-1256. doi:10.4088/JCP.10m06290

Walterfang, M., Wood, A., Barton, S., Velakoulis, D., Chen, J., Reutens, D., & Al., E. (2009). Corpus callosum size and shape alterations in individuals with bipolar disorder and their first-degree relatives. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 33(6), 1050-1057. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.05.019

Wilke, M., Kowatch, R., DelBello, M., Mills, N., & Holland, S. (2004). Voxel-based morphometry in adolescents with bipolar disorder: first results. Psychiatry Research, 131(1), 57-69. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2004.01.004

The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.


Download data is not yet available.