How to Cite
Castillo-Parra, H., Zeladita-Huaman, J. A., Cárdenas-Niño, L., Zegarra-Chapoñán, R., Cuba-Sancho, J. M., & Morán-Paredes, G. I. (2022). Validation of the Steinberg Parenting Styles Scale in Peruvian adolescents. International Journal of Psychological Research, 15(2), 68–76. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.5802
License terms
The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.


Introduction: There are numerous scales of parenting styles adapted for Peruvian adolescents. In addition, some report a structural model that does not match the model of the original version. Objective: Evaluate the psychometric properties of the Steinberg’s Parenting Styles Scale in Peruvian adolescents. Method: The sample included 563 students. A model of relationships in three dimensions is confirmed: involvement, psychological autonomy, and parental supervision. Results: The analysis suggested the elimination of five items. The resulting scale shows a good fit: χ2 = 469.051, df = 184, χ2/df = 2.54, CFI = 0.95, TLI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.053, SRMR = 0.063. Likewise, it shows an optimal internal consistency determined by the McDonald’s omega index. Conclusion: The internal structure of the questionnaire was similar to the original questionnaire and presented adequate reliability and construct validity. however, additional studies with larger age range samples and different Peruvian subcultures are required to achieve its generalization.



Barber, B. K., Chadwick, B. A., & Oerter, R. (1992). Parental behaviors and adolescent self-esteem in the United States and Germany. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54 (1), 128–141. https://doi.org/10.2307/353281

Bárrig-Jó, P., Nóblega, M., & Ugarte, A. (2020). Evidencias de validez convergente y de criterio del maternal Behavior Q-Sort (MBQS) 3.1 en Madres Peruanas. Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación-e Avaliação Psicológica, 3 (56), 117–128. https://doi.org/10.21865/RIDEP56.3.09

Baumrind, D. (1971). Current Patterns of Parental Authority. Developmental Psychology Monograph, 4 (1), 1–103. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/h0030372

Baumrind, D. (1972). An exploratory study of socialization effects on Black children: some Black-White
comparisons. Child Development, 43 (1), 261–267. https://doi.org/10.2307/1127891

Baumrind, D. (1991). The Influence of Parenting Style on Adolescent Competence and Substance Use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 11 (1), 56–95. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0272431691111004

Collins, W. A., & Steinberg, L. (2006). Adolescent Development in Interpersonal Context. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 1003–1067). John Wiley & Sons Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0316

Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113 (3), 487–496. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.487

Dunn, T. J., Baguley, T., & Brusden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: A practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. British Journal of Psychology, 105 (3), 399–412. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12046

Ekechukwu, R. O. (2018). Parenting Styles as Predictors of School Adjustment among Junior Secondary School Students in Rivers State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Management Sciences & Education, 7 (4), 18–24. https://europub.co.uk/articles/A-591966

Estrada-Alomía, E., Serpa-Barrientos, A., Misari-Condori, M., Barrios-Sallo, Z., Pastor-Samaniego, M., & Pomahuacre-Carhuayal, J. (2017). Análisis exploratorio y confirmatorio de la escala de nivel secundario estilos de crianza familiar (ECF-29) en estudiantes del nivel secundario. PsiqueMag, 6 (1), 279–290. https://revistas.ucv.edu.pe/index.php/psiquemag/article/view/167

Farrell, G. (2015). The Relationship Between Parenting Style and The Level of Emotional Intelligence in Preschool-Aged Children [Doctoral dissertation]. Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine. https://digitalcommons.pcom.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1340&context=psychology_dissertations

Gálvez-Nieto, J. L., Polanco-Levicán, K., & Navarro, B. (2021). Psychometric Properties of the Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles Scale in Chilean Adolescents. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18 (12), 6229. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126229

García-Peña, J. J., Arana-Medina, C. M., & RestrepoBotero, J. C. (2018). Estilos parentales en el proceso de crianza de niños con trastornos disruptivos. Investigación y Desarrollo, 26 (1), 55–74.

Gaxiola-Romero, J., Frías-Armenta, M., Cuamba-Osorio, N., Franco-Betanzos, J., & Olivas-Salido, L. (2006). Validación del cuestionario de prácticas parentales en una población mexicana. Enseñanza e Investigación en Psicología, 11 (1), 115–128.

Giles-Sims, J., & Lockhart, C. (2005). Culturally shaped patterns of disciplining children. Journal of Family Issues, 26 (2), 196–218. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X04270414

Hoffmann, J. P., & Bahr, S. J. (2014). Parenting style, religiosity, peer alcohol use, and adolescent heavy drinking. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 75 (2), 222–227. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2014.75.222

Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). Guilford Press.

Lamborn, S. D., Mounts, N. S., Steinberg, L., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child development, 62 (5), 1049–1065. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1991.tb01588.x

Lerner, R. E., & Grolnick, W. S. (2019). Maternal Involvement and Children’s Academic Motivation and Achievement: The Roles of Maternal Autonomy Support and Children’s Affect. Motivation and Emotion, 44, 373–388. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-019-09813-6

Luján-Aguirre, V. P. (2019). Estilos de crianza y conductas disruptivas en estudiantes de 1◦ a 3◦ de secundaria en una IE del distrito de Comas 2018. https://repositorio.ucv.edu.pe/handle/20.500.12692/29088

Maccoby, E. E., & A, M. J. (1983). Socialization in the Context of the Family: Parent-Child Interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: formerly Carmichael’s Manual of child psychology (pp. 1–101). Wiley.
Manrique-Millones, D. L., Ghesquière, P., & Leeuwen, K. (2014). Evaluation of a parental behavior scale in a Peruvian context. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23 (5), 885–894. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9744-z

Matalinares, M., Raymundo, O., & Baca, D. (2014). Propiedades psicométricas de la escala de estilos
parentales (MOPS). Persona, 017, 95–121. https://doi.org/10.26439/persona2014.n017.291

Merino-Soto, C., & Arndt, S. (2004). Análisis factorial confirmatorio de la escala de estilos de crianza de Steinberg: validez preliminar de constructos. Revista de Psicología, 22 (2), 187–214. https://doi.org/10.18800/psico.200402.002

Molnar, B. E., Buka, S. L., Brennan, R. T., Holton, J. K., & Earls, F. (2003). A multilevel study of neighborhoods and parent-to-child physical aggression: Results from the project on human development in chicago neighborhoods. Child maltreatment, 8 (2), 84–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559502250822

Mounts, N. S., & Allen, C. (2019). Parenting styles and practices: Traditional approaches and their application to multiple types of moral behavior. In D. J. Laible, G. Carlo, & L. M. Padilla-Walker (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Parenting and Moral Development (pp. 41–56). Oxford University Press.

Paolicchi, G., Núñez, A., Bozalla, L., Metz, M., Serantes, A., Sorgen, E., Bosoer, E., Maffezzoli, M., Pereyra, C., Alfaro, M., Basso, F., Lobbosco, C., Muras, M., & Salvatierra, E. (2017). Funciones parentales, tipo de apego y juego. In IX Congreso Internacional de Investigación y Práctica Profesional en Psicología XXIV Jornadas de Investigación de la Facultad de Psicología XIII Encuentro de Investigadores en Psicología del MERCOSUR (pp. 44–49). Instituto de Investigaciones, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Buenos Aires.

Pinquart, M., & Kauser, R. (2018). Do the associations of parenting styles with behavior problems and academic achievement vary by culture? results from a meta-analysis. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24 (1), 75–100. https://doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000149

Rajan, S., Navaneetham, J., Philip, M., & Muralidhar, D. (2019). A review of scales of perceived parenting style. Journal of Mental Health and Human Behaviour, 24 (2), 73–77. https://doi.org/10.4103/jmhhb.jmhhb_34_18

Rajan, S., Navaneetham, J., Philip, M., & Muralidhar, D. (2020). Young adults’ perception of parenting style: A retrospective exploration. Social Health and Behavior, 3 (1), 17–21. https://doi.org/10.4103/SHB.SHB_48_19

Rodrigues, Y., Veiga, F., Fuentes, M., & García, F. (2013). Parenting and Adolescents’ Self-Esteem: The Portuguese Context. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 18 (2), 395–416. https://doi.org/10.1387/RevPsicodidact.6842

Roh, P. (2016). The Relationship between Parental Attachment, Religious Coping, and Self-Esteem in Korean-American Adolescents [Doctoral Dissertations, Liberty University]. https://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/doctoral/1244

Smetana, J. G. (2017). Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs. Current Opinion in Psychology, 15, 19–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.02.012

Spera, C. (2005). A review of the relationship among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17 (2), 125–146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-005-3950-1

Stafford, M., Kuh, D. L., Gale, C. R., Mishra, G., & Richards, M. (2016). Parentchild relationships and offspring’s positive mental wellbeing from adolescence to early older age. The journal of positive psychology, 11 (3), 326–337. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F17439760.2015.1081971

Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S., Darling, N., Mounts, N. S., & Dornbusch, S. (1994). Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development, 65 (3), 754–770. https : / / doi . org / 10 . 1111 / j . 1467 8624.1994.tb00781.x

Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S., Dornbusch, S., & Darling, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: Authoritative Parenting, School Involvement, and Encouragement to Succeed. Child Development, 63 (5), 1266–1281. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131532

Zarra-Nezhad, M., Aunola, K., Kiuru, N., Mullola, S., & Moazami-Goodarzi, A. (2015). Parenting Styles and Children’s Emotional Development during the First Grade: The Moderating Role of Child Temperament. Journal of Psychology Psychotherapy, 5 (5), 206–218. https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-0487.1000206

Zeigler-Hill, V. (2013). The Importance of Self Esteem. In V. Zeigler-Hill (Ed.), Current issues in social psychology self-esteem (pp. 1–20). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203587874


Download data is not yet available.

Cited by

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>