Children and Young Anxiety Scale- CYAS: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties in Brazilian Sample
Thiago Francisco Pereira Soares
Universidade São Francisco
Makilim Nunes Baptista
Doc. of the Stricto Sensu Post-Graduation Program in Psychology, São Francisco University. Road of Rhodia, 7250, house 33, village Holandia, Campinas-São Paulo- Brazil. CEP 1308-902.
PDF

Keywords

Measurement
Statistics
Numerical Data
Psychometrics
Anxiety Scale
Young

How to Cite

Soares, T., & Baptista, M. (2019). Children and Young Anxiety Scale- CYAS: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties in Brazilian Sample. International Journal of Psychological Research, 12(2), 37-47. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.4203
PDF

Abstract

The aim of the study was to search for evidence of validity based on the relationship with external variables, and incrementally for the Child-Youth Anxiety Scale (CYAS). The convenience sample consists of 500 children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. The correlation between the scores of the CYAS factors and the scores of the instruments of the other constructs ADHD (MTA-SNAP-IV), anxiety (OQPS), rumination (QRR) and mood states (BRUMS) was initially performed, finding medium and strong correlations, which shows a satisfactory linear relation between the constructs to attest validity based on the relation with external variables. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was also performed with total MTA-SNAP-IV and its factors as criterion. In the modeling, it was possible to observe that, when introduced in the models, the CYAS becomes the latent variable with the greatest contribution, decreasing and canceling the OQPS contribution. These results affirm incremental validity for the CYAS. 

PDF

References

Altemus, M., Sarvaiya, N., & Neill Epperson, C. (2014). Sex differences in anxiety and depression clinical perspectives. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 35 (3), 320–330. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2014.05.004.

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2014). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders dsm-5 (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 40 (1), 57–87.

Asbahr, F. R. (2004). Transtornos ansiosos na infância e adolescência: aspectos clínicos e neurobiológicos. Jornal de Pediatria, 80 (2), 28–34. Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/jped/v80n2s0/v80n2Sa05.pdf.

Bandelow, B., & Michaelis, S. (2015). Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 17 (3), 327–335.

Bandelow, B., Michaelis, S., & Wedekind, D. (2017). State of the art. treatment of anxiety disorders. Servier Research Group, 19 (2), 93–107.

Bandelow, B., Reitt, M., Rover, C., Michaelis, S., Gorlich, Y., & Wedekind, D. (2015). Efficacy of treatments for anxiety disorders: a metaanalysis. Int Clin Psychopharmacol, 30 (4), 183–192. doi:10.1097/YIC.0000000000000078.

Baptista, M., & Soares, T. (2017). Revisão integrativa da ansiedade em adolescentes e instrumentos para avaliação na base scientific electronic library online. Revista Avaliação Psicológica, 16 (1), 97–105. doi:10.15689/ap.2017.1601.11.

Biaggio, A. M. B., Natalício, L., & Spielberger, C. D. (1977). Desenvolvimento da forma experimental em português do inventário de ansiedade traço-estado (idate) de spielberger. Arq. Bras. Psiq., 29 (3), 31–44. Retrieved from: http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/abpa/article/viewFile/17827/16571.

Bryant, F. (2000). Assessing the validity of measurement. in l. g. grimm & p. r. yarnold (eds.), reading and understanding more multivariate statistics (pp. 99-146). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Calvete, E., Orue, I., & González-Díez, Z. (2013). An examination of the structure and stability of early maladaptive schemas by means of the young schema questionnaire-3. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29 (4), 283–290. doi:10.1027/1015-5759/a000158.

Canetto, S. (1997). Meanings of gender and suicidal behavior during adolescence. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 27 (4), 339–351.

Caíres, M. C., & Shinohara, H. (2010). Anxiety disorders in children: A look at the communities. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 6 (1), 62–84. doi:10.5935/1808-5687.20100005.

Caspi, A., Houts, R., Belsky, D., Goldman-Mellor, S., Harrington, H., Israel, & Moffitt, T. (2014). The p factor: One general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders? Clinical Psychological Science, 2 (2), 119–137. doi:10.1177%2F2167702613497473.

Chan, S. M., Chan, S. K., & Kwok, W. (2014). Ruminative and catastrophizing cognitive styles mediate the association between daily hassles and high anxiety in hong kong adolescents. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46 (1), 57–66. doi:10.1007/s10578-014-0451-9.

Cloninger, C. R., Sigvardsson, S., & Bohman, M. (1988). Childhood personality predicts alcohol abuse in young adults. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 12 (4), 494–505. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1988.tb00232.x.

Cohen, N., Mor, N., & Henik, A. (2015). Linking executive control and emotional response: A training procedure to reduce rumination. Clinical Psychological Science, 3 (1), 15–25. doi:10.1177/2167702614530114.

Cronbach, L. J. (1996). Fundamentos da testagem psicológica (5. ed.). Artes Médicas.

DiMatteo, M. R., Lepper, H. S., & Croghan, T. W. (2000). Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160 (14), 2101–2107. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.14.2101.

Emory, C. (1985). Business research methods the irwin series in information and decision sciences (3. ed.). Homewood.

Erskine, H. E., Baxter, A. J., Patton, G., Moffitt, T. E., Patel, V., & Whiteford, H. A. (2016). The global coverage of prevalence data for mental disorders in children and adolescents. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 26 (4), 395–402. doi:10.1017/S2045796015001158.

Fischer, M., Barkley, R. A., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2002). Young adult follow-up of hyperactive children: Self-reported psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, and the role of childhood conduct problems and teen cd. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30 (5), 463–475. doi:10.15689/ap.2016.1501.14.

Gittelman, R., Mannuzza, S., Shenker, R., & Bonagura, N. (1985). Hyperactive boys almost grown up: I. psychiatric status. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42 (10), 937–947. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790330017002.

Gorayeb, M. A. M., & Gorayeb, R. (2008). “o que penso e sinto” – adaptação da revised children’s manifest anxiety scale (rcmas) para o português. Temas em Psicologia, 16 (1), 35–45. Retrieved from:http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?script=sci_-arttext&pid=S1413-389X2008000100003.

Guadagnoli, E., & Velicer, W. F. (1988). Relation of sample size to the stability of component patterns. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (2), 265–275.

Gustavon, D. E., Du Pont, A., Whisman, M. A., & Miyake, A. (1985). Evidence for transdiagnostic repetitive negative thinking and its association with rumination, worry, and depression and anxiety symptoms: A commonality analysis. Collabra: Psychology, 4 (1), 1–18. doi:10.1525/collabra.128.

Hair, J., Sarstedt, M., & Hopkins, L. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (pls-sem): An emerging tool for business research. European Business Review, 26 (2), 106–121. doi:10.1108/EBR-10-2013-0128.

Haynes, S. N., & Lench, H. C. (2003). Incremental validity of new clinical assessment measures. Psychological Assessment, 15 (4), 456–466. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.15.4.456.

Hunsley, J., & Mash, E. (2007). Evidence-based assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3 , 29–51.

Hutz, C. S., Bandeira, D. R., & Trentini, C. M. E. (2015). Psicometria. Porto Alegre: Artmed.

Jensen, P. S. (2009). Clinical considerations for the diagnosis and treatment of adhd in the managed care setting [research support, non-u.s. gov’t review]. American Journal of Managed Care, 15 (5), S129–S140.

Kessler, N. A., R. C.and Sampson, Berglund, P., Gruber, M. J., Al-Hamzawi, A., Andrade, L., & Wilcox, M. A. (2015). Anxious and non-anxious major depressive disorder in the world health organization world mental health surveys. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 24 (3), 210–226. doi:10.1017/S2045796015000189.

Klein, A. M., Rapee, R. M., Hudson, J. L., Schniering, C. A., Wuthrich, V. M., Kangas, M., & Rinck, M. (2015). Interpretation modification training reduces social anxiety in clinically anxious children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 75 , 78–84. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2015.10.006.

Kraemer, H. C., Stice, E., Kazdin, A., Offord, D., & Kupfer, D. (2001). How do risk factors work together? mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. Am J Psychiatry, 158 (6), 848–856. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.6.848.

Liu, T. L., Yang, P., Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., & Yen, C. F. (2014). Association between adhd symptoms and anxiety symptoms in taiwanese adolescents. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18 (5), 447–455. doi:10.1177/1087054712439936.

Mannuzza, S., Klein, R. G., Bonagura, N., Malloy, P., Giampino, T. L., & Addalli, K. (1991). Hyperactive boys almost grown up: V. replication of psychiatric status. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48 (1), 77–83. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810250079012.

Martínez-monteagudo, M. C., Inglés, C. J., Granados, L., Aparisi, D., & García-fernández, J. M. (2019). Personality and individual differences trait emotional intelligence profiles, burnout, anxiety, depression, and stress in secondary education teachers. Personality and Individual Differences, 142 , 53–61. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2019.01.036.

Mattos, P., Pinheiro, M. A. S., Rohde, L. A., & Pinto, D. (2006). Apresentação de uma versão em português

para uso no brasil do instrumento mtasnap-iv de avaliação de sintomas de transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade e sintomas de transtorno desafiador e de oposição. Revista de Psiquiatria RS, 28 (3), 290–297. doi:10.1590/S0101-81082006000300008.

Mcnair, D. M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1971). Manual for the profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Services.

Messick, S. (1989). Validity. em r. linn (org.), educational measurement. (3. ed.,13-103). New York, NY: American Council on Education and Macmillan Publishing Company.

Michelini, G., Eley, T. C., Gregory, A. M., & McAdams, T. A. (2015). Aetiological overlap between anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity symptom dimensions in adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 56 (4), 423–431. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12318.

Moser, J. S., Moran, T. P., Schroder, H. S., Donnellan, M. B., & Yeung, N. (2013). On the relationship between anxiety and error monitoring: a meta-analysis and conceptual framework. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 1–19. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00466.

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Jackson, B. (2003). Mediators of the gender difference in rumination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25 (1), 37–47. doi:10.1111/1471-6402.00005.

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3 (5), 400–424. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x.

Nunes, C., & Primi, R. (2010). Aspectos técnicos e conceituais da ficha de avaliação dos testes psicológicos. in conselho federal de psicologia (cfp), avaliação psicológica: diretrizes na regulamentação da profissão (pp. 101-128). Brasília: CFP.

Organização Mundial de Saúde. (2009). Integração da saúde mental nos cuidados de saúde primários: Uma perspectiva global. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/eportuguese/publications/Integracao_saude_mental_cuidados_primarios.pdf. NJ: Erlbaum.

Padilha, S., Noronha, A., & Fagan, C. (2007). Instrumentos de avaliação psicológica: uso e parecer de psicólogos. Avaliação Psicológica, 6 (1), 69–76.

Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual research review: A meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56 (3), 345–365. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12381.

Rohlfs, I. C. P. D. M., Carvalho, T. D., Rotta, T. M., & Krebs, R. J. (2004). Aplicação de instrumentos de avaliação de estados de humor na detecção da síndrome do excesso de treinamento. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Do Esporte, 10 (2), 176–181. Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbme/v10n2/a05v10n2.pdf.

Romanzini, L. (2015). Prevalência de distúrbios do sono em adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade social e sua relação com transtornos cognitivos e comportamentais (master’s dissertation on medicine and health sciences). Retrieved from: http://repositorio.pucrs.br/dspace/handle/10923/7717.

Rosamilha, N. (1971). Psicologia da ansiedade infantil. São Paulo: Edusp. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.br/books/about/Psicologia_da_ansiedade_infantil.html?d=wMMfAAAAIAAJredir_esc=y.

Salmond, S. S. (2008). Evaluating the reliability and validity of measurement instruments. Orthop Nurs, 27 (1), 28–30. doi:10.1097/01.NOR.0000310608.00743.54.

Schatz, D. B., & Rostain, A. L. (2006). Adhd with comorbid anxiety: A review of the current literature. Journal of Attention Disorders, 10 (2), 141–149. doi:10.1177/1087054706286698.

Sheldon, K. M., & Houser-Marko, L. (2001). Selfconcordance, goal attainment, and the pursuit of happiness: Can there be an upward spiral? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80 (1), 152–165. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11195887.

Sher, K. J., & Trull, T. J. (1994). Personality and disinhibitory psychopathology: alcoholism and antisocial personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103 (1), 92–102. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.103.1.92.

Silva, M. D. G. D. M. (2016). Transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e o uso dos jogos educativos. , 47, 1–23. Retrieved from: https://monografias.ufrn.br/jspui/bitstream/123456789/2723/3/TDAH%20e%20o%20Uso%20de%20Jogos%20Educativos_Artigo_2016.pdf.

Simpson, D., Suarez, L., Cox, L., & Connolly, S. (2018). The role of coping strategies in understanding the relationship between parental support and psychological outcomes in anxious youth. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 0 (0), 1–15. doi:10.1007/s10560-018-0531-y.

Soares, T. F. P., & Baptista, M. N. (2019). Escala de ansiedade infanto-juvenil (esan-ij): Construção e estudos psicométricos. (master´s dissertation on psychology,). Retrieved from: https://www.usf.edu.br/galeria/getImage/385/1686047817857116.pdf.

Thapar, A., Collishaw, S., Pine, D., & Thapar, A. K. (2012). Depression in adolescence. The Lancet, 379 (9820), 1056-1067. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60871-4.

Trapnell, P., & Campbell, J. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76 (2), 284–304. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.76.2.284.

World Health Organization. (2009). World health statistics 2009. Genebra. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_-WHS09_Full.pdf?ua=1.

Youngstrom, E. A., Findling, R. L., & Calabrese, J. (2003). Who are the comorbid adolescents? agreement between psychiatric diagnosis, youth, parent, and teacher report. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31 (3), 231–245. doi:10.1023/A:1023244512119.

Zanon, C., & Teixeira, M. (2006). Adaptação do questionário de ruminação e reflexão (qrr) para estudantes universitários brasileiros. Interação Em Psicologia, 10 (1), 75–82. doi:10.5380/psi.v10i1.5771.

Zinbarg, R. E., Mineka, S., Bobova, L., Craske, M. G., Vrshek-Schallhorn, S., Griffith, J. W., & Anand, D. (2016). Testing a hierarchical model of neuroticism and its cognitive facets: Latent structure and prospective prediction of first onsets of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders during 3 years in late adolescence. Clinical Psychological Science, 4 (5), 805–824. doi:10.1177/2167702615618162.

Zucker, R. A., Fitzgerald, H. E., & Moses, H. D. (1995). Emergence of alcohol problems and the several alcoholisms: A developmental perspective on etiologic theory and life course trajectory. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Wiley series on personality processes. Developmental psychopathology, Vol. 2. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 677-711). Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.

Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation-seeking. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.