An Exploratory Study for Assessment of Multimodal Semantic Memory in Colombian Children
María C. Navarro
Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3899-8796
Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos
Valentina Vásquez
Bárbara Carrea
Jorge I. Vélez
Moisés Mebarak Chams
PDF

Keywords

Semantic Memory
Assessment
Colombian Children
Neuropsychological evaluation

How to Cite

Navarro, M., Marmolejo-Ramos, F., Vásquez, V., Carrea, B., Vélez, J., & Mebarak Chams, M. (2020). An Exploratory Study for Assessment of Multimodal Semantic Memory in Colombian Children. International Journal of Psychological Research, 13(2), 49-58. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.4847
PDF

Abstract

Semantic memory (SM) is a type of long-term memory associated with the storage of general information about the world. Here we assessed the characteristics of the SM battery, developed by Catricalà et al. (2013), in a sample of Colombian children. This battery was originally conceived to evaluate adults, and features six subtests that assess SM in different modalities, using a common set of 48 stimuli in both living and nonliving categories. The design of the current study is of a cross-sectional and exploratory type. The sample was composed of 111 children, 57 boys (51%) and 54 girls (49%), who were 6 (n = 68) and 7 (n = 43) years old and had no intellectual disability. Robust linear regression models and correlation networks were used. We found an effect of age on general intelligence after correcting for gender, and no differences on the six subtest scores after corrections for gender and age were performed. Furthermore, age was found to be positively associated with the naming of colored photographs (β = .75, p = .039), naming in response to an oral description (β = 1.81, p = .039), picture sorting at four levels (β = 7.22, p = .029), and sentence verification (β = 26.66, p = .01). In addition, there were differences between the results obtained in adults in the original study and in the children of our study. This exploratory study supports the feasibility of the Spanish translation of the Catricalà et al. (2013) battery to assess SM in children with a nonclinical condition. Future studies are needed to evaluate the psychometric properties of this SM battery, and to corroborate and expand our findings in a larger sample of control children, and in children with some degree of intellectual disability or suffering of some neurodegenerative or psychiatric conditions.

PDF

References

Antonucci, S. M., & Reilly, J. (2008). Semantic memory and language processing: A primer. Seminars in Speech and Language, 29, 5–17. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1061621.

Bauera, P. J., Espositob, A. G., & Daly, J. J. (2020). Self-derivation through memory integration: A model for accumulation of semantic knowledge. Learning and Instruction, 66, 101271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2019.101271.

Boman, E. (2004). The effects of noise and gender on children s episodic and. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45 (5), 407–416. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2004.00422.x.

Bowler, D. M., Gaigg, S. B., & Gardiner, J. M. (2014). Binding of multiple features in memory by highfunctioning adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44 (9), 2355–2362. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2105-y.

Bozeat, S., Lambon, M., R, Patterson, K., Garrard, P., & Hodges, J. (2000). Non-verbal semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Neuropsychologia, 38 (9), 1207–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0028-3932(00)00034-8.

Catricalà, E., Della Rosa, P. A., Ginex, V., Mussetti, Z., Plebani, V., & Cappa, S. F. (2013). An italian battery for the assessment of semantic memory disorders. Neurological Sciences, 34 (6), 985–993. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-012-1181-z.

Cree, G. S., & McRae, K. (2003). Analyzing the factors underlying the structure and computation of the meaning of chipmunk, cherry, chisel, cheese, and cello (and many other such concrete nouns). Journal of Experimental Psychology, 132 (2), 163–201. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.132.2.163.

De Vega, M. (2007). Introducción a la psicología cognitiva. Alianza.

Díaz Narváez, P., V. (2009). Metodología de la investigación científica y bioestadística: para médicos, odontólogos y estudiantes de ciencias de la salud (Second edition). RIL Editores.

Diges, M., & Perpiñá, C. (2008). Psicopatología de la memoria. In A. Belloch, B. Sandín, & F. Ramos (Eds.), Manual de psicopatología (Rev. ed., Vol. 1) (pp. 169–204). McGraw-Hill.

Doppelmayr, M., Klimesch, W., Hodlmoser, K., Sauseng, P., & Gruber, W. (2005). Intelligence related upper alpha desynchronization in a semantic memory task. Brain Research Bulletin, 66 (2), 171–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2005.04.007.

Egeland, J., Johansen, S. N., & Ueland, T. (2010). Do low-effort learning strategies mediate impaired memory in ADHD? Journal of learning disanilities, 43 (5), 430–440. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0022219409355473.

Field, A., & Wilcox, R. (2017). Robust statistical methods: A primer for clinical psychology and experimental psychopathology researchers. Behavior Research and Therapy, 98, 19–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.013.

Filliter, J. H., McMullen, P. A., & Westwood, D. (2005). Manipulability and living/non-living category effects on object identification. Brain Cognition, 57 (1), 61–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2004.08.022.

Funnel, E., & Sheridan, J. (1992). Categories of knowledge? unfamiliar aspects of living and non-living things. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 9 (2), 135–153. https://doi.org/10.1080/02643299208252056.

Garrido, P., Martínez, F. J., Barrachina, J. P., Baldassarri, S., Cerezo, E., & Serón Arbeola, F. J. (2018). Learning through embodied conversational agents with semantic memory. The International Journal of engineering education, 34 (2), 442–457.

Gathercole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D. (1989). Evaluation of the role of phonological stm in the development of vocabulary in children: A longitudinal study. Journal of Memory and Language, 28 (2), 200–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(89)90044-2.

Gaye Vaurio, R. (2004). The Structure and Function of Semantic Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder [Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas, Austin]. https://search.proquest.com/openview/1901a243249a2cb53383d8a0f6a4e0dd/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y.

Hanten, G., & Martin, R. C. (2000). Contributions of phonological and semantic short-term memory to sentence processing: Evidence from two cases of closed head injury in children. Journal of Memory and Language, 43 (2), 335–361. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2000.2731.

Hartigan, J. A., & Kleiner, B. (1984). A Mosaic of Television Ratings. The American Statistician, 38 (1), 32–35. https://doi.org/10.2307/2683556.

Hays, J. R., Reas, D. L., & Shaw, J. B. (2002). Concurrent Validity of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test among Psychiatric Inpatients. Psychological Reports, 90 (2), 355–359. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.2002.90.2.355.

Hulley, S. B., Cummings, S. R., Browner, W. S., Grady, D. G., & Newman, T. B. (2007). Designing clinical research (3rd ed.). Wolters Kluwer. Kaplan, E., Goodglass, H., &Weintraub, S. (1983). Boston naming test. Lea, Philadelphia, Febiger.

Kiefer, M., & Pulvermüller, F. (2012). Conceptual representations in mind and brain: Theoretical developments, current evidence and future directions. Cortex, 48 (7), 805–825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2011.04.006.

Krauel, K., Duzel, E., Hinrichs, H., Lenz, D., Herrmann, C. S., Santel, S., & Baving, L. (2009). Electrophysiological correlates of semantic processing during encoding of neutral and emotional pictures in patients with adhd. Neuropsychologia, 47 (8–9), 1873–1882. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.02.030.

Lah, S., & Smith, M. L. (2014). Semantic and episodic memory in children with temporal lobe epilepsy: Do they relate to literacy skills? Neuropsychology, 28 (1), 113–122. https://doi.org/10.1037/neu0000029.

Marchman, V. A., & Fernald, A. (2008). Speed of word recognition and vocabulary knowledge in infancy predict cognitive and language outcomes in later childhood. Developmental Science, 11 (3), F9–F16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008. 00671.x.

Martin, A. (2015). GRAPES–Grounding representations in action, perception, and emotion systems: How object properties and categories are represented in the human brain. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 23 (4), 979–990. https://dx.doi.org/10.3758%2Fs13423-015-0842-3.

Martínez-Cuitiño, M., & Jaichenco, V. (2012). Evaluación de la memoria semántica. Revista de Psicología, 8 (16), 7–23. http://bibliotecadigital.uca.edu.ar/repositorio/revistas/evaluacion-memoriasemantica-cuitino-jaichenco.pdf.

Martino, N. L., & Hoffman, P. R. (2002). An investigation of reading and language abilities of college freshmen. Journal of Research in Reading, 25 (3), 310–318. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.00178.

Massand, E., & Bowler, D. M. (2013). Atypical neurophysiology underlying episodic and semantic memory in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45 (2), 298–315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1869-9.

Monaco, E., Jost, L. B., Gygax, P. M., & Annoni, J.-M. (2019). Embodied semantics in a second language: Critical review and clinical implications. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, Article 110. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2019.00110.

Naugle, R. I., Chelune, G. J., & Tucker, G. D. (1993). Validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Psychological Assessment, 5 (2), 182–186. https: //doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.5.2.182.

Owens, R. E. (2015). Language development: An introduction (9th ed.). Pearson.

Portin, R., Laatu, S., Revonsuo, A., & Rinne, U. (2000). Impairment of semantic knowledge in parkinson’s disease. Archives of Neurology, 57 (9), 1338–43. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.57.9.1338.

Prewett, P. N. (1995). A comparison of two screening tests (the Matrix Analogies Test–Short Form and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test) with the WISC-III. Psychological Assessment, 7 (1), 69–72. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.7.1.69.

Pulvermüller, F. (2013). Semantic embodiment, disembodiment or misembodiment? in search of meaning in modules and neuron circuits. Brain and Language, 127 (1), 86–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2013.05.015.

R Core Team. (2019). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/.

Robertson, E. K., & Kohler, S. (2007). Insights from child development on the relationship between episodic and semantic memory. Neuropsychologia, 45 (14), 3178–3189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.06.021.

Rzezak, P., Guimarães, C., Fuentes, D., Guerreiro, M. M., & Valente, K. D. R. (2011). Episodic and semantic memory in children with mesial temporal sclerosis. Epilepsy and Behavior, 21 (3), 242–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.03.032.

Sartori, G., & Lombardi, L. (2004). Semantic relevance and semantic disorders. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16 (3), 439–452. https://doi.org/10.1162/089892904322926773.

Sim, J., & Wright, C. (2002). Research in health care: Concepts, designs and methods. Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Simons, D. J., Shoda, Y., & Lindsay, D. S. (2017). Constraints on generality (COG): A proposed addition to all empirical papers. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12 (6), 1123–1128. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1745691617708630.

Smith, M. L., & Lah, S. (2011). One declarative memory system or two? the relationship between episodic and semantic memory in children with temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuropsychology, 25 (5), 634–644. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023770.

Spaan, P. E. J. (2016). Episodic and semantic memory impairments in (very) early alzheimers disease: The diagnostic accuracy of paired-associate learning formats. Cogent Psychology, 3 (1), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2015.1125076.

Stahl, S. A., & Nagy, M. E. (2006). Teaching word meanings. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Tomasello, R., Garagnani, M., Wennekers, T., & Pulvermüller, F. (2017). Brain connections of words, perceptions and actions: A neurobiological model of spatio-temporal semantic activation in the human cortex. Neuropsychologia, 98, 111–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.07.004.

Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of memory (pp. 381403). Academic Press.

Tulving, E. (1983). Elements of episodic memory. Clarendon Press.

Tulving, E. (1985). How many memory systems are there? American Psychologist, 40 (4), 385–398.

Tulving, E., & Craik, F. M. I. (2000). The Oxford handbook of memory. Oxford University Press.

Vallet, G. T., Hudon, C., Bier, N., Macoir, J., & Versace, R. (2017). A SEMantic and EPisodic memory test (SEMEP) developed within the embodied cognition framework: application to normal aging, Alzheimers disease and semantic dementia. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1493. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01493.

Vélez, J. I., & Correa, J. C. (2014). Should we think of a different median estimator? Comunicaciones en Estadística, 7 (1), 11–17.

Verhaeghen, P. (2003). Aging and vocabulary scores: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 18 (2), 332–339. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.18.2.332.

Verma, M., & Howard, R. J. (2012). Semantic memory and language dysfunction in early Alzheimers disease: A review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27 (12), 1209–1217. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.3766.

Villalón, J. (2008). Colonias extranjeras en Barranquilla. Ediciones Uninorte.

Wabgou, M., Vargas, D., & Carabalí, J. (2012). Las migraciones internacionales en Colombia. Investigación & Desarrollo, 20 (1). http://rcientificas.uninorte.edu.co/index.php/investigacion/article/viewArticle/2116/3678.

Wang, W., Tan, A.-H., & Teow, L.-N. (2017). Semantic Memory Modeling and Memory Interaction in Learning Agents. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, 47 (11), 2882–2895. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSMC.2016. 2531683.

Wechsler, D. A. (1987).Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised. (Span, 2016). TX: Psychological Corporation.

World Medical Association. (2013). Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310 (20), 2191–2194.

Zannino, G. D., Perri, R., Pasqualetti, P., Caltagirone, C., & Carlesimo, G. A. (2006). (Category-specific) semantic deficits in Alzheimers patients: The role of semantic distance. Neuropsychologia, 44 (1), 52–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.04.008.

Zechmeister, E. B., Chronis, A. M., Cull, W. L., DAnna, C. A., & Healy, N. A. (1995). Growth of a functionally important lexicon. Journal of Reading Behavior, 27 (2), 201–212. https://doi.org/10.1080%2F10862969509547878.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.