Objective: The purposes of the meta-analysis were to evaluate the relationship between family hardiness and different dimensions of parent and family functioning in households experiencing adverse child or family life events and circumstances and determine if family hardiness had either or both stress-buffering and health-enhancing effects on parent and family functioning. Method: Studies were included if the correlations between family hardiness and different dimensions of parental or family functioning were reported. The synthesis included 53 studies (N = 4418 participants) conducted in nine countries between 1992 and 2017. Results: showed that family hardiness was related to less parental stress, anxiety/depression, and parenting burden/demands and positively related to parental global health, well-being, and parenting practices. Results also showed that family hardiness was negatively related to family stress and positively related to family life satisfaction, adaptation, and cohesion. The effects sizes between family hardiness and positive parent and family functioning indicators were larger than those for stress-buffering indicators. Child and family life events and child age moderated the relationship between family hardiness and family but not parental functioning. Conclusion: The results are consistent with the hypothesis that family hardiness is an internal resource that simultaneously has stress-buffering and health-enhancing effects on parent and family functioning.
Ahlert, I. A., & Greeff, A. P. (2012). Resilience factors associated with adaptation in families with deaf or hard of hearing children. American Annals of the Deaf, 157 (4), 391–404.
Allison, S., Stacey, K., Dadds, V., Roeger, L., Wood, A., & Martin, G. (2003). What the family brings: gathering evidence for strengths-basedwork. Journal of Family Therapy, 25, 263–284. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6427.00248.
Appelbaum, M., Cooper, H., Kline, R. B., Mayo-Wilson, E., Nezu, A. M., & Rao, S. M. (2018). Journal article reporting standards for quantitative research in psychology: The APA publications and communications board task force report. American Psychologist, 73 (1), 3–25. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000191.
Bigalke, K. L. (2011). Parenting a chronically ill child: Support, coping, family hardiness, and marital stress [Master’s Thesis, University of Southern Mississippi]. https://aquila.usm.edu/masters_-theses/232/.
Bigalke, K. L. (2015). Coping, hardiness, and parental stress in parents of children diagnosed with cancer [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi]. https://aquila.usm.edu/dissertations/109/.
Bishop, M., & Greeff, A. P. (2015). Resilience in families in which a member has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 22, 463–471.
Brown, O., Fouche, P., & Coetzee, M. (2010). Bouncing forward: Families living with a type 1 diabetic child. South African Family Practice, 52, 536–541. https://doi.org/10.1080/20786204.2010.10874044.
Bugental, D. B., Johnston, C., New, M., & Silvester, J. (1998). Measuring parental attributions: Conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 459–480. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3184.108.40.2069.
Carson, D. K., Araquistain, M., Ide, B., Quoss, B., & Weigel, R. (1994). Stress, strain, and hardiness as predictors of adaptation in farm and ranch families. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 3, 157–174. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02234065.
Chen, J. Y. (2008). Mediators affecting family functioning in families of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Science, 24 (10), 514–522. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1607-551x(09)70010-5.
Chen, J. Y., & Clark, M. J. (2010). Family resources and parental health in families of children with duchenne muscular dystrophy. Journal of Nursing Research, 18 (4), 239–248. https://doi.org/10.1097/jnr.0b013e3181fbe37b.
Chen, J. Y., Clark, M. J., Chang, Y. Y., Liu, Y. Y., & Chang, C. Y. (2014). Factors affecting perceptions of family function in caregivers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Journal of Nursing Research, 22 (3), 165–174. https://doi.org/10.1097/jnr.0000000000000042.
Chen, J. Y., Yen, M. H., Lin, Y. H., Chen, H. S., Hu, S. H., & Liu, Y. Y. (2015). Predictors of family function in DMD and SMA family. Symbiosis Journal of Nursing & Health Care, 1 (1), 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.15226/2471-6529/1/1/00109.
Chick, M. T. L. (1998). An examination of the effects of family demands and resources on adaptation in families of children with diabetes [Master’s Thesis, University of Windsor]. https://scholar.uwindsor.ca/etd/1034/.
Choi, H. (2015). Adaptation in families of children with down syndrome: A mixed-methods design. Journal of the Korean Academy of Nursing, 45 (5), 501–512. https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2015.45.4.501.
Clark, P. C. (2002). Effects of individual and family hardiness on caregiver depression and fatigue. Research in Nursing and Health, 25, 37–48. https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.10014.
DeMarco, R., Ford-Gilboe, M., Friedemann, M., McCubbin, H. I., & McCubbin, M. A. (2000). Stress, coping, and family health. In V. H. Hill (Ed.), Handbook of stress, coping, and health: Implications for nursing research, theory, and practice (pp. 295-332). Sage Publications.
Dervishaliaj, E. (2015). Family hardiness as a family resource in coping with stress in families of children with developmental disabilities [Unpublished manuscript]. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321484227.
Donnelly, E. (1994). Parents of children with asthma: An examination of family hardiness, family stressors, and family functioning. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 9 (6), 398–408. https://www.pediatricnursing.org/article/0882-5963(94)90056-6/fulltext#relatedArticles.
Dunst, C. J. (2021a). Family strengths, the circumplex model of family systems, and personal and family functioning: A meta-analysis of the relationship among study measures. Journal of Behavior, Health & Social Issues, 13 (2), 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.22201/fesi.20070780e.2021.13.2.77837.
Dunst, C. J. (2021b). A meta-analytic investigation of the relationships between different dimensions of family strengths and personal and family wellbeing. Journal of Family Research, 33 (1), 209–229. https://doi.org/10.20377/jfr-578.
Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Deal, A. G. (1988). Enabling and empowering families: Principles and guidelines for practice. Brookline Books.
Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Thompson, R. B. (1990). Supporting and strengthening family functioning: toward a congruence between principles and practice. Prevention in Human Services, 9 (1), 19–43. https://doi.org/10.1300/J293v09n01_02.
Easter, G., Sharpe, L., & Hunt, C. J. (2015). Systematic review and meta-analysis of anxious and depressive symptoms in caregivers of children with asthma. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 40 (7), 623–632. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsv012.
Eltanamly, H., Leijten, P., Jak, S., & Overbeek, G. (2019). Parenting in times of war: A meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis of war exposure, parenting, and child adjustment. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838019833001.
Eschleman, K. J., Bowling, N. A., & Alarcon, G. M. (2010). A meta-analytic examination of hardiness. International Journal of Stress Management, 17 (4), 277–307. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020476.
Failla, S., & Jones, L. C. (1991). Families of children with developmental disabilities: An examination of family hardiness. Research in Nursing and Health, 14, 41–50. https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770140107.
Ford-Gilboe, M. (1997). Family strengths, motivation, and resources as predictors of health promotion behavior in single–parent and two–parent families. Research in Nursing and Health, 20, 205–217. https://www.pediatricnursing.org/article/0882-5963(94)90056-6/fulltext#relatedArticles.
Ford-Gilboe, M. (2002). Developing knowledge about family health promotion by testing the developmental model of health and nursing. Journal of Family Nursing, 8 (2), 140–156. https://doi.org/10.1177/107484070200800204.
Funk, S. C. (1992). Hardiness: A review of theory and research. Health Psychology, 11 (5), 335–345. https://doi.org/10.1037//0278-6220.127.116.115.
Garcia-Cadena, C. H., de la Rubia, J. M., Diaz-Diaz, H. L., Martinez-Rodrigiez, J., Sanchez-Reyes, L., & Lopez-Rosales, F. (2014). Effects of family strength over the psychological well-being and internal locus of control. Journal of Behavior, Health & Social Issues, 5 (2), 33–46. https://doi.org/10.5460/jbhsi.v5.2.42251.
Giblin, P. (1996). Family strengths. The Family Journal, 4 (4), 339–346. https://doi.org/10.1177/1066480796044008.
Gralton, K. S. (2017). Exploring resiliency and family functioning for families of premature infants [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee]. https://dc.uwm.edu/etd/1629.
Greeff, A. P., & Aspeling, E. (2007). Resiliency in south african and belgium single–parent families. Acta Academica, 39 (2), 139–157. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103116.
Greeff, A. P., & du Toit, C. (2009). Resilience in remarried families. American Journal of Family Therapy, 37, 114–126. https://doi.org/10.1080/01926180802151919.
Greeff, A. P., & Fillis, A. J. (2009). Resiliency in poor single–parent families. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 90 (3), 279–285. https://doi.org/10.1606/1044-3894.3902.
Greeff, A. P., & Lawrence, J. (2012). Indicators of resilience factors in families who lost a home in a shack fire. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 22 (3), 210–224. https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.1108.
Greeff, A. P., & Nolting, C. (2013). Resilience in families of children with developmental disabilities. Families, Systems & Health, 31 (4), 396–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035059.
Greeff, A. P., & van der Merwe, S. (2004). Variables associated with resilience in divorced families. Social Indicators Research, 68, 59–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:SOCI.0000025569.95499.b5.
Greeff, A. P., & van der Walt, K. J. (2010). Resilience in families with an autistic child. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45 (3), 347–355. https://www.jstor.org/stable/i23875885.
Greeff, A. P., Vansteenwegen, A., & DeMot, L. (2006). Resiliency in divorced families. Social Work in Mental Health, 4, 67–81. https://doi.org/10.1300/J200v04n04_05.
Greeff, A. P., Vansteenwegen, A., & Geldhof, A. (2014). Resilience in families with a child with cancer. Pediatric Hematology and Ongology, 31, 670–679. https://doi.org/10.3109/08880018.2014.905666.
Hackbarth, M., Pavkov, T.,Wetchler, J., & Flannery, M. (2012). Natural disasters: An assessment of family resiliency following hurricane Katrina. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38 (2), 340–351. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2011.00227.x.
Hayes, S. A., & Watson, S. L. (2013). The impact of parenting stress: A meta-analysis of the studies comparing the experience of parenting stress in parents of children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43 (3), 629–642. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1604-y.
Hedges, L. V. (1994). Fixed effects models. In H. Cooper & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 285-299). Russell Sage Foundation.
Hou, W. K., Liu, H., Ho, J., Kim, H., Seong, E., Bonanno, G. A., Hobfoll, S. E., & Hall, B. J. (2019). Everyday life experiences and mental health among conflict-affected forced migrants: A metaanalysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 264, 50–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.11.165.
Huang, C. F. (1995). Hardiness and stress: A critical review. Maternal and Child Nursing Journal, 23 (3), 82–89.
Huang, C. F. (1996). Families of children with developmental disabilities: The test of a structural model of family hardiness, social support, stress, coping, and family functioning [Doctoral Dissertation, St. Louis University]. https://search.proquest.com/docview/304283690?accountid=6724.
Huppert, F. A. (2003). Evidence for the independence of positive and negative well-being: Implications for quality of life assessment. British Journal of Health Psychology, 8 (1), 107–122. https://doi.org/10.1348/135910703762879246.
Karademas, E. C. (2007). Positive and negative wellbeing: Common and specific predictors. Personality and Individual Differences, 43 (2), 277–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.11.031.
Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168.
Kobasa, S. C., Maddi, S. R., & Kahn, S. (1981). Hardiness and health: A prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41 (1), 168–177. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.124.
Koegelenberg, G. J. (2013). Resilience characteristics of families with a child with type 1 diabetes [Master’s Thesis, Stellenbosch University]. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/85800.
Ladewig, B. H., Jesse, P. O., & Strickland, M. P. (1992). Children held hostage: Mother’s depressive affect and perceptions of family psychosocial functioning. Journal of Family Issues, 13 (1), 65–80. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251392013001005.
Lambert, C. E., & Lambert, V. A. (1999). Psychological hardiness: State of the science. Holistic Nursing Practice, 13 (3), 11–19. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004650-199904000-00004.
Lapin, B. R. (2015). Relationships among prenatal risk factors, early life events, and asthma in at-risk children [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago]. https://hdl.handle.net/10027/19499.
Leeman, J., Crandell, J., Lee, A., Bai, J., Sandelowski, M., & Knafl, K. (2016). Family functioning and the well–being of children with chronic conditions: A meta-analysis. Research in Nursing & Health, 39 (4), 229–243. https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.21725.
Leske, J. S., & Jiricka, M. K. (1998). Impact of family demands and family strengths and capabilities on family well-being and adaptation after critical injury. American Journal of Critical Care, 7, 383–392. https://doi.org/10.4037/ajcc19126.96.36.1993.
Lightsey, O. R. (1996). What leads to wellness? the role of psychological resources in well–being. Counseling Psychology, 24 (4), 589–735. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000096244002.
Long, K. A., & Marsland, A. L. (2011). Family adjustment to childhood cancer: A systematic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 57–88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-010-0082-z.
Macias, M. M., Saylor, C. F., Rowe, B. P., & Bell, N. L. (2003). Age–related parenting stress differences in mothers of children with spina bifida. Psychological Reports, 93, 1223–1232. https://doi.org/10.2466/PR0.93.8.1223-1232.
McCubbin, H. I., & McCubbin, M. A. (1988). Typologies of resilient families: Emerging roles of social class and ethnicity. Family Relations, 37, 247–254.
McCubbin, H. I., & Patterson, J. M. (1983). Family stress and adaptation to crises. In D. H. Olson & B. C. Miller (Eds.), Family studies: Review yearbook (pp. 87-106). Sage.
McCubbin, H. I., Thompson, A. I., Thompson, E. A., Elver, K. M., & McCubbin, M. A. (1998). Ethnicity, schema, and coherence: Appraisal processes for families in crisis. In H. I. McCubbin, E. A. Thompson, A. I. Thompson, & J. E. Fromer (Eds.), Stress, coping, and health in families: Sense of coherence and resiliency(pp. 41-67). Sage.
McCubbin, M. A., McCubbin, H. I., & Thompson, A. I. (1986). FHI: Family Hardiness Index. In H. I. McCubbin & A. I. Thompson (Eds.), Family assessment inventories for research and practice (pp. 125-132). University of Wisconsin at Madison.
McNaughton, D. B., Cowell, J. M., Gross, D., Fogg, L., & Ailey, S. H. (2004). The relationship between maternal and child mental health in mexican immigrant families. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 18 (2/3), 229–242. https://doi.org/10.1891/rtnp.188.8.131.52283.
McStay, R. L., Trembath, D., & Dissanayake, C. (2014). Stress and family quality of life in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: Parent gender and the double ABCX model. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 44 (12), 3101–3118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2178-7.
Nabors, L. A., Kichler, J. C., Brassell, A., Thakkar, S., Bartz, J., Pangallo, B., J. snd Van Wassenhove, & Lundy, H. (2013). Factors related to caregiver state anxiety and coping with a child’s chronic illness. Families, Systems & Health, 31 (2), 171–180. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031240.
Olsen, S. F., Marshall, E. S., Mandleco, B. L., Allred, K. W., Dyches, T. T., & Sansom, N. (1999). Support, communication, and hardiness in families with children with disabilities. Journal of Family Nursing, 5 (3), 275–291. https://doi.org/10.1177/107484079900500303.
Olsson, M. B. (2008). Understanding individual differences in adaptation in parents of children with intellectual disabilities: A risk and resilience perspective. In L. M. Glidden (Ed.), International review in research in mental retardation (Vol. 36, pp. 281-315). Academic Press.
Orr, R. R., Cameron, S. J., Dobson, L. A., & Day, D. M. (1993). Age–related changes in stress experienced by families with a child who has developmental delays. Mental Retardation, 31, 171–176.
Pai, A. L., Greenley, R. N., Lewandowski, A., Droter, D., Youngstrom, E., & Peterson, C. C. (2007). A meta–analytic review of the influence of pediatric cancer on parent and family functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 21 (3), 407–415. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3184.108.40.2067.
Pate, T., & Pate, M. (2016). Family hardiness, anxiety, and subjective well-being in families with and without a chronic illness. In J. Stala & J. Garmaz (Eds.),Strengthening families (pp. 123- 135). Krakow Press.
Pinquart, M. (2018). Parenting stress in caregivers of children with chronic physical conditions: A metaanalysis. Stress & Health, 34 (2), 197–207. https://doi.org/110.1002/smi.2780.
Puasiri, S., Sitthimongkol, Y., Tilokskulchai, F., Sangon, S., & Nityasuddhi, D. (2011). Adaptation of thai families with mentally ill young people. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 15 (2), 137–150.
Raisanen, E. D. (2013). The role of hardiness, family hardiness, and parenting self-efficacy on parenting stress in adoptive parents [Master’s Thesis, University of Southern Mississippi]. https://aquila.usm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1615&context=masters_theses.
Roper, S. O., Mandleco, B., Freeborn, D., Dyches, T. T., & McOmber, S. (2013). Parental perceptions: Depression and hardiness in families raising a child with a disability. Saheer, A. P., Mariette, T. M., & Majid, S. A. (2017). Positive and negative affect on quality of life: A review. International Healthcare Research Journal, 1 (5), 7–9. https://doi.org/10.26440/ihrj/01_05/101.
Scherer, N., Verhey, I., & Kuper, H. (2019). Depression and anxiety in parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 14 (7), e0219888. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219888.
Schmukle, S. C., Egloff, B., & Burns, L. R. (2002). The relationship between positive and negative affect in the positive and negative affect schedule. Journal of Research in Personality, 36 (5), 463–475. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00007-7.
Schwab, L. (1996). Individual hardiness and staff satisfaction. Nursing Economics, 14 (3), 171–173.
Siddaway, A. P., Wood, A. M., & Hedges, L. V. (2019). How to do a systematic review: A best practices guide for conducting and reporting narrative reviews, meta-analyses, and meta-syntheses. Annual Review of Psychology, 70, 747–770. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102803.
Silibello, G., Vizziello, P., Gallucci, M., Selicorni, A., Milani, D., Ajmone, P. F., Rigamonti, C., De Stefano, S., Bedeschi, M. F., & Lalatta, F. (2016). Daily life changes and adaptations investigated in 154 families with a child suffering from a rare disability in Northern Italy. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 42 (1), 76. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-016-0285-0.
Singer, G. H. S., & Floyd, F. (2006). Meta-analysis of comparative studies of depression in mothers of children with and without developmental disabilities. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 111 (3), 155–169. https://doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2006)111[155:MOCSOD]2.0.CO;2.
Slone, M., Shoshani, A., & Paltieli, T. (2009). Psychological consequences of forced evacuation on children: Risk and protective factors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22 (4), 340–343. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20433.
Small, R. F. (2010). Resilience in families living with a child diagnosed with cerebral palsy [Master’s Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University]. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/145044329.pdf.
Snowdon, A. W., Cameron, S., & Dunham, K. (1994). Relationships between stress, coping resources, and satisfaction with family functioning in families of children with disabilities. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 26 (3), 63–76.
Suurmond, R., van Rhee, H., & Hak, T. (2017). Introduction, comparison, and validation of metaessentials: A free and simple tool for meta-analysis. Research Synthesis Methods, 8, 537–553. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1260.
Svavarsdottir, E. K., McCubbin, M. A., & Kane, J. H. (2000). Well–being of parents of young children with asthma. Research in Nursing and Health, 23, 346–358. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-240X(200010)23:5<346::AID-NUR2>3.0.CO;2-W.
Thornton, M. (2018). Family hardiness, family coping, and marital satisfaction as reported by caregivers of children who have been diagnoses with significant disabilities: A mixed methods online research study [Doctoral Dissertation, TexasWoman’s University] https://hdl.handle.net/11274/10698.
Trivette, C. M., Dunst, C. J., & Hamby, D. W. (2010). Influences of family-systems intervention practices on parent–child interactions and child development. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30, 3–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0271121410364250.
Uthis, P. (1999). The effects of commitment to caregiving role, stressors, appraisal of stress, coping resources, and coping responses on emotional well-being among HIV/AIDS caregivers in Thailand [Doctoral Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University]. Dissertation Abstracts International (No. 9949279).
Van Rhee, H. J., Suurmond, R., & Hak, T. (2015). User manual for Meta-Essentials: Workbooks for metaanalysis (Version 1.4). Erasmus Research Institute of Management.
van Aert, R. C. M., Wicherts, J. M., & van Assen, M. A. L. (2019). Publication bias examined in meta–analysis from psychology and medicine: A meta–meta–analysis. PLoS ONE, 14 (4), e0215052. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0215052.
Vandsburger, E., & Biggerstaff, M. A. (2004). Evaluation of the stress adjustment and adaptation model among families reporting economic pressure. Journal of Family Social Work, 8 (2), 65–84. https://doi.org/10.1300/J039v08n02_04.
VanSolkema, J. M. (1997). Stress, coping, adaptation, and family hardiness in families with an adult who is developmentally disabled and living in the parental home [Master’s Thesis, Grand Valley State University]. https://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/theses/439.
Varner, J. E. S. (2009). Effects of spiritual well-being, religious coping, and hardiness on parenting behaviors in low socioeconomic status families [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi].
Walsh, L. (2004). Stress and coping in families of Canadian military members deployed overseas [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Windsor]. https://scholar.uwindsor.ca/etd/3610.
Woolf, C., Muscara, F., Anderson, V. A., & McCarthy, M. C. (2016). Early traumatic stress responses in parents following a serious illness in their child: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 23 (1), 55–66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880-015-9430-y.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.