How to Cite
Cañavate Buchon, G., & Meneghel, I. (2023). Analysis of some Demographic and Psychosocial Factors that Influence in the Perception of the Workplace Violence. International Journal of Psychological Research, 16(1), 67–77. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.5961
License terms
The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.


Objective. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of psychosocial risks based on the demographic variables of sex, age, and seniority, on the perception of workplace violence in a group of workers from Spanish companies. Methods. a total of 22 Spanish companies were analysed between 2016 and 2018 with a total sample of 26741 people using the FPSICO 3.1 psychosocial assessment method and divided into demographic groups of sex, age, and seniority for subsequent comparison of means and regression analysis. Results. The results confirm the relationship between psychosocial risks and the perception of workplace violence. The analyses
by demographic variables position the group of men as the group with the highest perception of workplace violence, except for discrimination, where it was higher in the group of women. The results confirm that the perception of workplace violence increases significantly with age and seniority in the company. Conclusions. workplace violence is one of the most worrying risk factors today and it is necessary to better understand what risk factors can favour its appearance or its differentiated behaviour according to sex, age, or seniority. This can allow us to develop planned strategies to control this risk and focus on specific demographic groups.



Berdahl, J. L., Magley, V. J., & Waldo, C. R. (1996). The sexual harassment of men? Exploring the concept with theory and data. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20(4), 527–547. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1471-6402.1996.TB00320.X

Blanchard-Fields, F., Stein, R., & Watson, T. L. (2004). Age differences in emotion-regulation strategies in handling everyday problems. Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 59(6). https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/59.6.P261

Brun, E., & Milczarek, M. (2007). Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and heath. In European Risk Observatory Report.

Carstensen, L. L. (1995). Evidence for a Life-Span Theory of Socioemotional Selectivity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(5), 151–162. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.ep11512261

Chan, D. K. S., Lam, C. B., Chow, S. Y., & Cheung, S. F. (2008). Examining the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of workplace sexual harassment: A meta-analytic review. In Psychology of Women Quarterly (Vol. 32, Issue 4, pp. 362–376). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.00451.x

Cochran, C. C., Frazier, P. A., & Olson, A. M. (1997). Predictors of responses to unwanted sexual attention. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(2), 207–226. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00109.x

Einarsen, S., & Mikkelsen, E. G. (2002). Individual effects of exposure to bullying at work. In Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace (pp. 127–144). https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203164662.ch6

Ferrer Puig, R., Guilera Ferré, G., & Peró Cebollero, M. (2011). Propiedades psicométricas del instrumento de valoración de riesgos psicosociales del Instituto Nacional De Seguridad e Higiene En El Trabajo (FPSICO). http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/NOVEDADES EDITORIALES/FPsico/Informe justificación.pdf

Figueiredo-Ferraz, H., Gil-Monte, P. R., Grau-Alberola, E., Llorca-Pellicer, M., & García-Juesas, J. A. (2012). Influence of Some Psychosocial Factors on Mobbing and its Consequences Among Employees Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 25(5), 455–463. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3148.2012.00687.x

Finegold, D., Mohrman, S., & Spreitzer, G. M. (2002). Age effects on the predictors of technical workers’ commitment and willingness to turnover. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(5), 655–674. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.159

Fitzgerald, L. F., Gelfand, M. J., & Drasgow, F. (1995). Measuring Sexual Harassment: Theoretical and Psychometric Advances. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17(4), 425–445. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp1704_2

Giorgi, G., Arenas, A., & Leon-Perez, J. M. (2011). An operative measure of workplace bullying: The negative Acts questionnaire across Italian companies. Industrial Health, 49(6), 686–695. https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.MS1287

Harned, M. S., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (2002). Understanding a link between sexual harassment and eating disorder symptoms: A mediational analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(5), 1170–1181. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.5.1170

Hirigoyen, M.-F. (2001). El acoso moral en el trabajo. Distinguir lo verdadero de lo falso. 1999, 300 p. https://www.bibliopsi.org/docs/carreras/obligatorias/CFP/trabajo/alonzo/TRABAJO ALONZO/el acoso moral en el trabajo.pdf

Instituto de Innovación Educativa y Desarrollo Directivo. (2009). Datos sobre Mobbing. Estudios Cisneros - Mobbing. Acoso psicológico en el trabajo. El Mobbing En España 2009 – Liderazgo Tóxico y Mobbing En La Crisis Económica. https://www.acosopsicologico.com/acoso-laboral-mobbing/datos-sobre-mobbing/

Kuhnert, K. W., & Vance, R. J. (2004). Job insecurity and moderators of the relation between job insecurity and employee adjustment. In Stress & well-being at work: Assessments and interventions for occupational mental health. (pp. 48–63). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10116-004

Leymann, H. (1990). Mobbing and psychological terror at workplaces. In Violence and Victims (Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 119–126). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.5.2.119

Leymann, Heinz, & Gustafsson, A. (1996). Mobbing at work and the development of post-traumatic stress disorders. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), 251–275. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594329608414858

Lim, V. K. G. (1996). Job insecurity and its outcomes: Moderating effects of work-based and nonwork-based social support. Human Relations, 49(2), 171–194. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679604900203

López, V. D., & González-Trijueque, D. (2022). Review of instruments for Spanish-speaking countries to measure workplace harassment: Implications in psychological forensic assessment. Anuario de Psicologia Juridica, 32(1), 11–21. https://doi.org/10.5093/apj2021a16

Lundberg-Love, P., & Marmion, S. (2003). Sexual harassment in the private sector (pp. xiii, 230). https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2003-06757-004

Niedl, K. (1995). Mobbing, Bullying am Arbeitsplatz - Eine empirische Analyse zum Phanomen sowie zu personalwirtschaftlich relevanten Effekten von systematischen Feindseligkeiten. In Personalwirtschaftliche Schriften ; 4. Hampp.

Nunnally, J., & Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric Theory, 3rd edn, 1994. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Piñuel Zabala, I. (2001). Mobbing: Como sobrevivir al acoso psicológico en el trabajo. Editorial Sal Terrae. https://www.casadellibro.com/libro-mobbing-como-sobrevivir-al-acoso-psicologico-en-el-trabajo/9788429314106/778009

Sancini, A., Fioravanti, M., Andreozzi, G., Di Giorgio, V., Tomei, G., Tomei, F., & Ciarrocca, M. (2012). Meta-analysis of studies examining long-term construction injury rates. Occupational Medicine, 62(5), 356–361. https://doi.org/10.1093/OCCMED/KQS064

Song, G. (2021). How Does Job Insecurity Affect Workplace Harassment The Interaction Effect of Hypercompetitive Attitude, Coworker Impression Management, and Leader Narcissism. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.753061

Street, A. E., Gradus, J. L., Stafford, J., & Kelly, K. (2007). Gender Differences in Experiences of Sexual Harassment: Data From a Male-Dominated Environment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(3), 464–474. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.75.3.464

Vie, T. L., Glaso, L., & Einarsen, S. (2012). How does it feel Workplace bullying, emotions and musculoskeletal complaints. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53(2), 165–173. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1467-9450.2011.00932.X

Waite, S. (2021). Should I Stay or Should I Go Employment Discrimination and Workplace Harassment against Transgender and Other Minority Employees in Canada’s Federal Public Service. Journal of Homosexuality, 68(11), 1833–1859. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2020.1712140


Download data is not yet available.

Cited by