How to Cite
Colina Martin, S. (2020). La cooperación internacional para el desarrollo y la protección de los derechos de las personas LGTBI: un análisis comparado. Cooperacion, 7(2), 68–87. https://doi.org/10.21500/23825014.4812
License terms


 Assignment of Rights


Authorization for reproduction, publication, communication and distribution of a literary, artistic or scientific


I , ____________________________________________, author of the book and / or article , of legal age , resident of the city of _________________ , identified with citizenship / passport n° ______________________ issued on _______________________, in exercise of his physical and mental faculties , part henceforth be called the AUTHOR , supports the following authorization to the reproduction, publication, communication and distribution of a work, perform the following terms:

 1.     Regardless of current legal regulations due to the linking of the parties to this contract, and any kind of legal presumption , the parties agree that the AUTHOR authorize ( name of the publisher ) to reproduce , publish , communicate and distribute the material referred to in the International Journal of Cooperation and Development of the University of San Buenaventura.

 2.     Such authorization lies in particular on the copyright of the work, by any means known or unknown, publication of the work, distribution of the work , either directly or through third parties for purely educational purposes.

 3.     AUTHOR agrees to report and declare the existence of this authorization and to preserve the right of the International Journal of Cooperation and Development of the first publication of the work.

 4.     AUTHOR declares that the article is original and that it is his sole creation, no impediment of any kind exist for the authorization he is doing, besides being responsible for any action claim, plagiarism or other type of claim that might arise about .

 5.     Such permission is free of charge.

 6.     Moral copyright in the article are solely the AUTHOR and the University of San Buenaventura expressly agrees to recognize and respect them rigorously.


The Author and / or AUTHORS



The 2030 Agenda has established a consensual framework of objectives for all countries that places the fight against inequalities, the end of discrimination and the construction of fairer, more inclusive societies at the center of sustainable development. A comparative analysis of the initiatives developed so far by the main cooperation agencies in the field of the protection and promotion of the human rights of LGBTI persons is proposed, with the aim of highlighting good practices that could contribute to strengthen this field of ​​work, which is often still incipient or unsystematic.


ACNUDH. (2013). Orientación Sexual e Identidad de Género en el Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos. Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos - Oficina Regional para América del Sur.
AECID. (2011). Plan de Actuación Sectorial de Género y Desarrollo. Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo.
Anyamele, C., Lwabaayi, R., Nguyen, T-V. y Binswanger, H. (2005). Sexual Minorities, Violence and AIDS in Africa. Africa Region Working Paper Series. Washington DC, Banco Mundial. https://bit.ly/3atJZ11
APPGLGBTI. (2016). The UK’s stance on international breaches of LGBTI rights. All Party Parliamentary Group on Global LGBTI Rights.
Armas, H. (2006). Exploring Linkages Between Sexuality and Rights to Tackle Poverty. IDS Bulletin, 37(5), 21-26. https://bulletin.ids.ac.uk/index.php/idsbo/article/view/912
Armas, H. (2007). Whose Sexuality Counts? Poverty, Participation and Sexual Rights. IDS Working Paper 294. Institute of Development Studies - University of Sussex. https://bit.ly/2J87tha
Badgett, L. (2020). The Economic Case for LGBTI Equality: Why Fair and Equal Treatment Benefits Us All. Beacon Press.
Armas, H. (2006). Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation: A Review of the Economics Literature and Beyond. In: W. Rodgers. (ed). Handbook on the Economics of Discrimination. Edward Elgar, 161-186.
Badgett, L., Nezhad, S., Waaldijk. K. & Rodgers, Y. (2014). The relationship between LGBTI inclusion and economic development: An analysis of emerging economies. The Williams Institute.
Badgett, L. & Sell, R. (2018). A Set of Proposed Indicators for the LGBTI Inclusion Index. World Bank-UNDP. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/608921536847788293/pdf/129913-WP-UNDP-Indicators-for-the-LGBTI-IInclusion-Index.pdf
Badgett, L., Waaldijk, K., & Rodgers, Y. (2019). The Relationship between LGBTI Inclusion and Economic Development: Macro-Level Evidence. World Development, 120, 1-14. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X19300695
Bailey, S. (2013). Sexuality, and Development in the Maghreb: Origins of Institutionalized Homophobia, and the Disruption of Development. Brandeis University.
Beall, J. & Piron, L. (2005). DFID Social Exclusion Review. London School of Economics- Overseas Development Institute. https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/2301.pdf
Bergenfield, R. & Miller, A.M. (2014). Queering international development? An examination of new ‘LGBTI rights’ rhetoric, policy, and programming among international development agencies, LGBTIQ Policy Journal. Harvard Kennedy School.
Brown, G., Browne, K., Elmhirst, R. & Hutta, S. (2010). Sexualities in/of the Global South, Geography Compass, 4(10). 1567-1579.
Burack, C. (2018). Because We Are Human: Contesting US Support for Gender and Sexuality Human Rights Abroad. SUNY Press.
Butler, J. (1993). Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’. Routledge.
Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Routledge.
Carroll, A. (2015). Measuring LGBTI Inclusion in the World: Summary, Survey Report on the proposed UNDP-OHCHR Global LGBTI Inclusion Index. ILGA World.
Cohn, C. (1987). Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 12(4), 687-718.
Cornwall, A. & Jolly, S. (2009). Introduction: Sexuality Matters. IDS Bulletin, 37(5),1-11. https://www.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/Intro37.52.pdf
CREA. (2012). Count Me In! Research Report Violence against Disabled, Lesbian, and Sex-Working Women in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. CREA. https://www.oursplatform.org/wp-content/uploads/CREA-The-Count-Me-In-Violence-against-Disabled-Lesbian-Sex-working-Women-in-Bangladesh-India-Nepal-Report.pdf
DFID. (2005). Reducing Poverty by Tackling Social Exclusion: A DFID Policy Paper. Department for International Development. https://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/development/docs/socialexclusion.pdf
Enloe, C. (2004). ‘Gender’ is not Enough: The Need for a Feminist Consciousness. International Affairs, 80(1), 95-97.
Enloe, C. (1990). Bananas, Beaches & Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. University of California Press.
Fernández, E. (1997). Derechos humanos: ¿Yuxtaposición o integración? Anuario de Filosofía del Derecho, xiv, 679-702. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=142347
Guixé, I. (coord.). (2015). Derechos humanos y desarrollo: el enfoque basado en derechos humanos en la cooperación al desarrollo. Institut de Drets Humans de Catalunya.
Hawkins, K., Cornwall, A. & Lewin, T. (2011). Sexuality and Empowerment: An Intimate Connection. Pathways of Women’s Empowerment RPC. https://bit.ly/3p6QtHp
Huiskes, M. & Reinders, J. (2018). Addressing Sexual and Gender Diversity in Dutch development cooperation. Share-Net Netherlands. http://share-netinternational.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Addressing-Sexual-and-Gender-Diversity-in-Dutch-Development-Cooperation-Final-Report-.pdf
ILGA World. (2019). State-Sponsored Homophobia 2019. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.
ILGA World. (2017). State Sponsored Homophobia 2017. A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association.
Jaime, M. (2013). Diversidad sexual, discriminación y pobreza frente al acceso a la salud pública. Demandas de las comunidades TLGBI en Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. CLACSO. https://www.crop.org/viewfile.aspx?id=499
Khan, S., Bondyopadhyay, A. & Mulji, K. (2005). From the front line: The impact of social, legal and judicial impediments to sexual health promotion and HIV and AIDS-related care and support for males who have sex with males in Bangladesh and India. Naz Foundation International.
Langlois, A. (2015). International Relations Theory and Global Sexuality Politics. Politics 36(4), 385-399.
Lascuarín, M., & Villafuerte, L. (2016). The International Relations theory under a feminist approach. Revista de Relaciones Internacionales, Estrategia y Seguridad, 11(1), 45-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.18359/ries.1366
MAEC. (2018). v Plan Director de la Cooperación Española (2018-2021). Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación. http://www.cooperacionespanola.es/es/v-plan-director-2018-2021
MAEC. (2013). iv Plan Director de la Cooperación Española (2013-2016). Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación. https://bit.ly/37AymDP
_____. (2009). iii Plan Director de la Cooperación Española (2009-2012). Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación. https://www.aecid.es/Galerias/publicaciones/descargas/plan_director_2009_2012.pdf
_____. (2005). ii Plan Director de la Cooperación Española (2005-2008). Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación. https://www.aecid.es/Centro-Documentacion/Documentos/Planificaci%C3%B3n/Plan_Director0508_Esp.pdf
Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. (2013). Dutch gender and LGBTI-equality policy 2013- 2016. https://www.government.nl/documents/reports/2013/11/01/dutch-gender-and-LGBTI-equality-policy-2013-2016
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark 2018-2021. (2018). Action plan to promote security, well-being and equal opportunities for LGBTI people. Regeringen.
Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden. (2006). Sweden’s International Policy on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights. Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
Moreau, J. (2018). Trump in Transnational Perspective: Insights from Global LGBTI Politics. Politics & Gender, 14(4), 619-648. https://10.1017/S1743923X18000752
Mujika, I. y Villar, A. (2009). La diversidad sexual y los derechos humanos. ALDARTE.
Müller, A. (2017). Scrambling for access: availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of healthcare for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in South Africa. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 17(1), 16.
Nilsson, A., Lundholm, K., & Vågberg, E. (2014). Study on Sida’s work on human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons. International Development Agency. https://www.sida.se/contentassets/d7abd0467e4742068d8650796e615d4d/15389.pdf
Norwegian Ministry of Children and Equality. (2009). Improving quality of life among lesbians, gays, bisexuals and trans persons 2009-2012. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12389/21844
Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2012). Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. Guidelines for the Norwegian Foreign Service. https://bit.ly/34usE4r
Nuñez-Mietz, F., & García, L. (2017). Can Transnational Norm Advocacy Undermine Internalization? Explaining Immunization Against LGBTI Rights in Uganda. International Studies Quarterly, 61(1), 196-209.
Nyamu-Musebi, C., & Cornwall, A. (2004). What is the rights-based approach all about? Perspectives from international development agencies. IDS Working Paper 234. https://bit.ly/3h1LpRG
Nyeck, S., Shepherd, D., Sehoole, J., Ngcobozi, L., & Conron, K. (2019). The Economic Cost of LGBTI Stigma and Discrimination in South Africa. UCLA.
Poku, N., Esom, K. & Armstrong, R. (2017). Sustainable development and the struggle for LGBTI social inclusion in Africa: opportunities for accelerating change, Development in Practice, 27, 432-443.
Puar, J. (2007). Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times. Duke University Press.
Puar, J. (2013). Homonationalism as Assemblage: Viral Travels, Affective Sexualities. Jindal Global Law Review, 4(2), 23-43.
RFSL. (2018). Guiding Principles on the Inclusion of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI) People in Development Policy and Programs. Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Rights.
RFSL. (2008). LGBTI in development - a handbook on LGBTI perspectives in development cooperation. Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Rights.
Samelius, L. & Wagberg, E. (2005). Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. Issues in Development. Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency https://www.sida.se/contentassets/77a0ee7f307a4ff49fa0514d080748dc/sexual-orientation-and-gender-identity-issues-in-development_718.pdf
Sánchez-Moreno, M. (2011). Del enfoque de derechos a la diversidad en la cooperación al desarrollo. Qué cooperación internacional queremos y de qué manera, Pueblos, 46. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311899710_Manuel_Sanchez-Moreno_Del_enfoque_de_derechos_a_la_diversidad
SIDA. (2017). Evaluation of the Sida supported RFSL projects “LGBTI Voices” and “Rainbow Leaders”. Final Report. SIDA. https://bit.ly/3h34umE
SIDA. (2010a). Human Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender persons. Conducting a Dialogue. SIDA.
SIDA. (2010b) Poverty and Sexuality: What are the connections? Overview and Literature Review. SIDA.
SIDA. (2001). A Democracy and Human Rights Based Approach to Development Cooperation. SIDA.
Sylvester, C. (2013). War as Experience: Contributions from International Relations and Feminist Analysis. Routledge.
Spitz, G., Muskens, R., & van Ewijk, E. (2013). The Dutch and development cooperation. Ahead of the crowd or trailing behind? NCDO. https://bit.ly/3nvyJ8a
Steans, J. (2013) Gender and International Relations. Theory, Practice, Policy. Polity Press.
Tarrow, S. (2005). The New Transnational Activism. Cambridge University Press.
The White House. (2011). Presidential Memorandum – International Initiatives to Advance the Human Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2011/12/06/presidential-memorandum-international-initiatives-advance-human-rights-l
Thoreson, R. (2011). Capably Queer: Exploring the Intersections of Queerness and Poverty in the Urban Philippines. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 12(4), 493-510.
Tickner, J. (2008). Gender in World Politics. In J., Baylis, S., Smith, & P., Owens. (eds.). The Globalization of World Politics. Oxford University Press.
Tickner, J. (2001). Gendering World Politics. Issues and Approaches in the Post-Cold War Era. Columbia University Press.
Tickner, J. (1992). Gender in International Relations. Columbia University Press.
UNDP. (2012). Mainstreaming Human Rights in Development Policies and Programming: UNDP Experiences. United Nations Development Programme. http://hrbaportal.org/wp-content/files/English_Web_draft6b1.pdf
Tickner, J. (2006). Indicators for Human Rights Based Approaches to Development in UNDP Programming: A Users’ Guide. United Nations Development Programme. http://www.undp-aciac.org/publications/other/undp/hr/humanrights-indicators-06e.pdf
USAID. (2018). Suggested Approaches for Integrating Inclusive Development Across the Program Cycle and in Mission Operations. U.S. Agency for International Development. https://bit.ly/2Wsxyut
USAID. (2014). LGBTI Vision for Action. Promoting and Supporting the Inclusion of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals. U.S. Agency for International Development.
USAID. (2013). Strategy on Democracy, Human Rights and Governance. U.S. Agency for International Development. https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1866/USAID-DRG_fina-_6-24-31.pdf
Uvin, P. (2007). From the right to development to the rights-based approach: how ‘human rights’ entered development. Development in Practice, 17(4-5), 597-606.
Van Klinken, A. (2017). Sexual orientation, (anti-)discrimination and human rights in a ‘Christian nation’: the politicization of homosexuality in Zambia. Critical African Studies 9(1), 9-31.
Van Ewijk, E., Kamphof, R., Maas, T., & van Gent, M. (2017). Shifting roles – The impact of the Dutch aid and trade agenda on Dutch actors. Kaleidos Research/NCDO.
Wilcox, L. (2014). Bodies of Violence: Theorizing Embodied Subjects in International Relations. Oxford University Press.
Wood, J., Simon, S., & Anmeghichean, M. (2007). LGBTI Health and Rights in East Africa: A Snapshot of Successes and Challenges for the Advocacy Community. Open Society Institute.
World Bank. (2013). Inclusion Matters: The Foundation for Shared Prosperity. World Bank.
World Bank & OECD. (2013). Integrating Human Rights into Development: Donor Approaches, Experiences, and Challenges. https://bit.ly/2LJHpK2
Zalewski, M. (2013). Feminist International Relations: Exquisite Corpse. Routledge.
Zalewski, M. (1993). Feminist Theory and International Relations. In M., Bowker, & R., Brown. (eds), From Cold War to collapse: theory and world politics in the 1980s. University Press.


Download data is not yet available.

Cited by