How to Cite
Cárdenas Castañeda, L. (2021). The reliabilist naturalism against Cartesian skepticism and the notion of justification. Revista Guillermo De Ockham, 18(2), 151–160. https://doi.org/10.21500/22563202.4658 (Original work published September 18, 2020)
License terms

The Revista Guillermo de Ockham provides an immediate and open access to its content, based on the principle of offering the public a free access to investigations to provide a global interchange of knowledge.
Unless otherwise established, the contents of this journal has a license with Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

  • Attribution: You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
  • NonCommercial: You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
  • NoDerivatives: If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
  • No additional restrictions: You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.


In this work, we explain why naturalized epistemology occupies such an important place in contemporary philosophy and why it distances itself so radically from traditional epistemology. For this we resort to one of the classic themes of epistemology, the problem of skepticism, to illustrate that according to naturalists, the heirs of Descartes have no conclusive reasons to keep the notion of justification in the definition of knowledge; that is, for defenders of naturalized epistemology, undefined justification is not a substantial condition for obtaining knowledge. In fact, based on the objections to the tripartite definition of knowledge, and specifically to the notion of justification, reliabilist philosophers such as Goldman and Dretske concluded that justification is irrelevant to knowledge, so they introduce the reliabilist definition: belief + truth = reliable knowledge.



Armstrong, D. (1979). Belief, Truth and Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge Univerity Press.
Bunge, M. (1985). Racionalidad y Realismo. Madrid: Alianza.
Carnap, R. (1959/1978). La superación de la metafísica mediante el análisis del lenguaje. En A. Ayer, El Positivismo Lógico (pp. 66-87). Madrid, Fondo de Cultura Económica.
Cresto, E. (1996). Algunas estrategias naturalistas contra el escéptico. Revista de Filosofía, XI, 21–33. http://sedici.unlp.edu.ar/bitstream/handle/10915/12704/Documento_completo.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Dennett, D. (2005). Sweet Dreams: Philosophical Obstacles to a Science of Consciousness. Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Descartes, R. (1641/2006). Meditaciones Metafísicas. Madrid: Espasa Calpe.
____________ (1637/2006). Discurso del Método. Madrid: Espasa Calpe.
____________ (1664/1989). El Mundo. Tratado de la Luz. Barcelona: Anthropos.
Diéguez, A. (1998). Realismo científico: una introducción al debate actual en la filosofía de la ciencia. Málaga: Servicio de publicaciones e intercambio científico de la Universidad de Málaga.
Dretske, F. (1995). Naturalizing the Mind. Massachusetts: MIT Press.
_________ (2000). Perception, Knowledge and belief. Selected Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
García, C. E. (1999). Descartes: Razón y Sinrazón. Lumina, 3, 77–86.
Gettier, E. (1963). ¿Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? Analysis, 23, 121-123. https://doi.org/10.1093/analys/23.6.121
Goldman, A. (1986). Epistemology and cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Kant, I. (1781/1998). Crítica de la Razón Pura. Madrid: Alfaguara.
Kim, J. (1988). ¿What is ‘Naturalized Epistemology’? In Philosophical Perspectives, 2, 381–405. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2214082
Lewis, C. (1946). An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation. La sale: Open Court.
Magee, B. (2000/2001). Los Grandes Filósofos. Madrid: Cátedra.
Plotkin, H. (1994). Darwine Machines and the Nature of Knowledge. London: The Penguin Press.
Psillos, S. (1999). Scientific Realism: How Science Tracks Truth. London: Routledge.
Putnam, H. (1978/1991). El Significado y las Ciencias Morales. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
Quine, W. V. O. (1969/1986). Epistemología Naturalizada. En La Relatividad Ontológica y Otros Ensayos (pp. 93-119). Madrid, Editorial Tecnos.

Ryle G. (1949/1967). El Concepto de lo Mental. Buenos Aires: Paidos.
Searle J. (1995/1997). La Construcción de la Realidad Social. Barcelona: Paidos.
_______ (1983/1992). Intencionalidad. Madrid: Tecnos.
Stroud B. (1984). The Significance of Philosophical Skepticism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wittgenstein, L. (1921/1988). Tractatus lógico-philosophicus. London: Routledge.
______________ (1969/1988). Sobre la Certeza. Barcelona: Gedisa.


Download data is not yet available.

Cited by