How to Cite
Magnano, P., Craparo, G., & Paolillo, A. (2016). Resilience and emotional intelligence: which role in achievement motivation. International Journal of Psychological Research, 9(1), 9–20. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.2096
License terms
The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.


In the framework of Positive Organizational Behavior, the construct of Psychological Capital identifies four psychological capacities that affect motivation and performance in the workplace: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Emotional Intelligence, then, addresses self-regulatory processes of emotions and motivation that enable people to make adjustments to achieve individual, group, and organizational goals; Emotional Intelligence is strongly correlated with individual advancement and success in an organizational setting and with individual performance. Moreover, Emotional Intelligence is considered an antecedent to resilience. The present study aims to investigate the role of resilience and emotional intelligence in achievement motivation, verifying if emotional intelligence mediates the relationship among resilience and achievement motivation. Participants are 488 Italian workers, aged between 18 and 55 years. The findings confirm the significant role played by emotional intelligence on resilience and on motivation to achievement.



Armstrong, A. R., Galligan, R. F., & Critchley, C. R. (2011). Emotional intelligence and psychological resilience to negative life events. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(3), 331–336. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.025
Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. M. (2009). Psychological Capital: a positive resource for combating employee stress and turnover. Human Resource Management, 48(5), 677–693. doi:10.1002/hrm
Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2010). The Additive Value of Positive Psychological Capital in Predicting Work Attitudes and Behaviors. Journal of Management, 36 (2), 430–452. doi:10.1177/0149206308329961.
Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta-analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22(2), 127–152. doi:10.1002/hrdq.20070
Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Positive organizational behavior: engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(2), 147–154. doi:10.1002/job.515.
Bar-On, R. (1997). The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (6), 1173–1182. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173
Block, J., & Kremen, A. M. (1996). IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 349-361. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.70.2.349
Bonanno, G. A. (2005). Clarifying and extending the construct of adult resilience. American Psychologist, 60, 265-267. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.60.3.265b
Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 788–813. doi:10.1108/02683940310511881
Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (2004). The Emotionally Intelligent Manager. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Coutu, D. L. (2002). How resilience works. Harvard Business Review, 80(3), 46-55.
Craparo, G., Magnano, P., & Faraci, P. (2014). Psychometric properties of the italian version of self-report Emotional Intelligence Test (SREIT). TPM, 21(2), 121–133. doi: 10.4473/TPM21.2.1.
Demos, E. V. (1989). Resiliency in infancy. In T. F. Dugan, R. Cole (Eds.). The child of our times: Studies in the development of resiliency (3-22). Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel.
Devi, A. (2014). Emotional Intelligence in relation to self concept achievement motivation and academic achievement of student teachers of Punjab. Unpublished paper. doi:10.1177/0149206307305562
Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. (1999). Can Emotional Intelligence be measured and developed? Leadership and Organisation Development, 20 (5), 242–252. doi: 10.1108/01437739910287117
Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. (1999b). EIQ User Manual. NFER-Nelson, Windsor.
Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. (2000). Emotional Intelligence. A review and evaluation study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(4), 341–372. doi: 10.1108/02683940010330993
Feldman Barrett, L., & Gross, J. (2001). Emotional intelligence: A process model of emotion representation and regulation. In T. J. Mayne, G. A. Bonnano (Eds.), Emotions: Current issues and future directions (286-310). New York: Guilford.
Folkman S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2000). Positive affect and the other side of coping. American Psychologist, 55, 647–654. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.6.647
Forgeard, M. J. C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2012). Seeing the glass half full: A review of the causes and consequences of optimism. Pratiques Psychologiques, 18(2), 107–120. doi:10.1016/j.prps.2012.02.002.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3(1), No Pagination Specified, Article 1.
Friborg, O., Hjemdal, O., Rosenvinge, J. H., Martinussen, M., Aslaksen, P. M., & Flaten, M. A. (2006). Resilience as a modulator for pain and stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61, 213–219. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.12.007
Froman, L. (2010). Positive Psychology in the Workplace. Journal of Adult Development, 17(2), 59–69. doi: 10.1007/s10804-009-9080-0.
Giorgi, G., & Majer, V. (2009). WOMI. Work and Organizational Motivational Inventory. Firenze: Giunti O.S.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.
Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.
Gordon Rouse, K. A. (2001). Resilient students’ goals and motivation. Journal of Adolescence, 24(4), 461–72. doi: 10.1006/jado.2001.0383
Harland, L., Harrison, W., Jones, J., & Reiter-Palmon, R. (2005). Leadership behaviors and subordinate resilience. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11, 2-14. doi: 10.1177/107179190501100202
Hjemdal, O., Friborg, O., Stiles, T. C., Rosenvinge, J. H., & Martinussen, M. (2006). Resilience predicting psychiatric symptoms: a prospective study of protective factors and their role in adjustment to negative life events. Child Psychology and Psychotherapy, 13, 194–201. doi: 10.1002/cpp.488
Klohnen, E. C. (1996). Conceptual analysis and measurement of the construct of ego-resiliency. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology, 70(5), 1067-1079. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.70.5.1067
Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). Factors and processes contributing to resilience: The resilience framework. In M. D. Glantz, J. L. Johnson, (Eds.), Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations (179-224). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Larson M., & Luthans F. (2006). Potential added value of psychological capital in predicting work attitudes. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 13, 44–61. doi: 10.1177/10717919070130020601
Laudadio, A., Mazzocchetti, L., & Pérez, F. J. F. (2011). Valutare la resilienza: teorie, modelli e strumenti. Roma: Carocci.
Law, K.S., Wong, C.S., & Song, L.J. (2004). The construct and criterion validity of emotional intelligence and its potential utility for management studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 483-496. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.3.483
Lopes, P. N., Grewal, D., Kadis, J., Gall, M., & Salovey, P. (2006). Evidence that emotional intelligence is related to job performance and affect and attitudes at work. Psicothema, 18(Suppl.), 132–138.
Luthans F., Avolio B., Walumbwa F., Li W. (2005). The psychological capital of Chinese workers: Exploring the relationship with performance. Management and Organization Review, 1, 247–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2005.00011.x
Luthans, F. (1998). Organisational Behaviour (8th ed.). Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
Luthans, F. (2002a). Positive organizational behavior. Developing and managing psychological strengths. Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), 57-72. doi: 10.5465/AME.2002.6640181
Luthans, F. (2002b). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 695-706. doi: 10.1002/job.165
Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2004). Human, social, and now positive psychological capital management: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 2, 143–60.
Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., & Peterson, S. J. (2010). The development and resulting performance impact of positive psychological capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21(1), 41–67. doi:10.1002/hrdq.20034
Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Li, W. (2005). The psychological capital of Chinese workers: Exploring the relationship with performance. Management and Organization Review, 1, 247-269. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2005.00011.x
Luthans, F., Avolio, B., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and job satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541–572. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00083.x
Luthans, F., Luthans, K. W., & Luthans, B. C. (2004). Positive psychological capital: Beyond human and social capital. Business Horizon, 47(1), 45–50. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2003.11.007
Luthans, F., Norman, S. M., Avolio, B. J., & Avey, J. B. (2008). The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate - employee performance relationship. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 219–238. doi:10.1002/job
Luthans, F., Vogelgesang, G. R., & Lester, P. B. (2006). Developing the psychological capital of resiliency. Human Resource Development Review, 5(1), 25-44. doi: 10.1177/1534484305285335
Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Maddi S. R. (1987). Hardiness training at Illinois Bell Telephone. In P. Opatz (Ed.), Health promotion evaluation (101-115). Stevens Point, WI: National Wellness Institute.
Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience process in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227-239. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.227
Masten, A. S., & Reed, M. J. (2002). Resilience in development. In C. R. Snyder & S. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (74-88). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). Emotional Intelligence. Science & Myth. Cambridge, Massachussetts; London, England: The MIT Press.
Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–31). New York: Basic Books.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Competing models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Handbook of human intelligence (2nd ed.) (396-420). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 197–215.
Mega, C., Ronconi, L., & De Beni, R. (2014). What makes a good student? How emotions, self-regulated learning, and motivation contribute to academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(1), 121–131. doi:10.1037/a0033546
Resnick, B. (2011). The relationship between resilience and motivation. In: B. Resnick, L. P. Gwyther, K. A. Roberto (Eds.), Resilience in Aging (pp. 199-215). Springer: New York. 10.1007/978-1-4419-0232-0_13.
Salovey, P., Bedell, B., Detweiler, J., & Mayer, J. (1999). Coping intelligently: Emotional intelligence and the coping process. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Coping: The psychology of what works (pp. 141–164). New York: Oxford University Press.
Salovey, P., Hsee, C. K., & Mayer, J. D. (1993). Emotional intelligence and the self-regulation of affect. In D. M. Wegner, & J. W. Pennebaker (Eds.), Handbook of mental control (258-277). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., et al. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00001-4
Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 219-237.
Skodol, A. E. (2010). The resilient personality. In J. W. Reich, A. J. Zautra, J. S. Hall (Eds.), Handbook of adult resilience (112-125). New York: Guilford Press.
Snyder, C., Irving, L. M., & Anderson, S.A. (1991). Hope and health: Measuring the will and the ways. In C.R. Snyder & D. R. Forsyth (Eds.), Handbook of social and clinical psychology: The health perspective (285-305). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
Stajkovic, A. D. (2003). Introducing positive psychology to work motivation: Development of a core confidence model. Paper presented at the Academy of Management, Organizational Behavior Division, National meeting. Seattle, WA.
Stajkovic, A. D. (2006). Development of a core confidence higher-order construct. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1208–1224. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.6.1208
Stajkovic, A., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 240-261.
Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2002). Positive emotions and emotional intelligence. In L. Feldman Barrett & P. Salovey (Eds.), The Wisdom of Feelings (319-340). New York: Guilford.
Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(2), 320–333. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.86.2.320.
Umadevi, M. R. (2009). Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement. Edutracks, 8 (12), 31-35.
Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence. A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 71–95. doi: 10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00076-9
Wagnild, G., & Young, H. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resiliency Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165-178.
Waite, P., & Richardson, G. (2004). Determining the efficacy of resiliency training in the work site. Journal of Allied Health, 33, 178-183.
Werner, E., & Smith, R. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Wolin, S. J., & Wolin, S. (1993). Bound and determined: Growing up resilient in a troubled family. New York: Villard.
Worline, M. C., Dutton, J. E., Frost, P. J., Kanov, J., Lilius, J. M., & Maitlis, S. (2002). Creating fertile soil: The organizing dynamics of resilience. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Denver.
Youssef, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2007). Positive Organizational Behavior in the Workplace: The Impact of Hope, Optimism, and Resilience. Journal of Management, 33(5), 774–800. doi: 10.1177/0149206307305562
Zunz, S. (1998). Resiliency and burnout: Protective factors for human service managers. Administration in Social Work, 22(3), 39-54. doi: 10.1300/J147v22n03_03


Download data is not yet available.

Cited by