Inhibitory Processes and Fluid Intelligence: a Performance at Early Years of Schooling
Yesica Aydmune
Instituto de Psicología Básica, Aplicada y Tecnología (IPSIBAT), Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMDP)- Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)
Isabel Introzzi
1Instituto de Psicología Básica Aplicada y Tecnología (IPSIBAT). Universidad Nacional (UNMDP) y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata, Argentina.
Eliana Vanesa Zamora
1Instituto de Psicología Básica Aplicada y Tecnología (IPSIBAT). Universidad Nacional (UNMDP) y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata, Argentina.
Florencia Stelzer
1Instituto de Psicología Básica Aplicada y Tecnología (IPSIBAT). Universidad Nacional (UNMDP) y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata, Argentina.
PDF
XML

Keywords

Perceptual inhibition
cognitive inhibition
response inhibition
fluid intelligence
childhood

How to Cite

Aydmune, Y., Introzzi, I., Zamora, E., & Stelzer, F. (2020). Inhibitory Processes and Fluid Intelligence: a Performance at Early Years of Schooling. International Journal of Psychological Research, 13(1), 29 - 39. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.4231
PDF
XML

Abstract

Inhibition constitutes one of the main executive functions and it is important to more complex skills such as fluid intelligence. Actually, there is an agreement on distinguishing three inhibitory types: perceptual, cognitive and response inhibition. Several studies show the differential engagement of these inhibitory types in different skills. However, there is no registered evidence about the differential relation of inhibitory types with fluid intelligence. This inquiry is especially important during the first school years, since in this stage, inhibitory processes would already be differentiated, and inhibitory processes and fluid intelligence are linked to the performance of children in the school setting. For these reasons, the goal of this work is to study the relation and contribution of perceptual, cognitive, and response inhibition with fluid intelligence, in children in the first years of primary school. For that purpose, a sample of children from six to eight years old (N = 178) was tested with a perceptual inhibition task (perception of similarities and differences task); a cognitive inhibition task (proactive interference task); a response inhibition task (stop signal task); and a fluid intelligence task (progressive matrices task). We observed significant correlations between perceptual and response inhibition and fluid intelligence (controlling for age), but only perceptual inhibition explains significantly part of the performance in the fluid intelligence task. This study provides data about the specific contribution, during childhood, of an inhibitory type to fluid intelligence and contributes empirical evidence in support of the non-unitary approach of inhibition.

PDF
XML

References

Alloway, T. P., & Alloway, R. G. (2010). Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106 (1), 20–29. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2009.11.003.

Arán Filippetti, V., Krumm, G., & Raimondi, W. (2010). Funciones Ejecutivas y sus correlatos con Inteligencia Cristalizada y Fluida: Un estudio en Niños y Adolescentes. Revista Neuropsicología Latinoamericana, 7 (2), 24–33. Retrieved from: http://www.redalyc.org/html/4395/439542510003.

Aslan, A., Staudigl, T., Samenieh, A., & Bäuml, K. H. T. (2010). Directed forgetting in young children: Evidence for a production deficiency. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 17 (6), 784–789. doi:10.3758/PBR.17.6.784.

Aydmune, Y., Introzzi, I., & Lipina, S. (2019). Inhibitory Processes Training for School-age Children: Transfer Effects. Developmental Neuropsychology, 44 (7), 513–542. doi:10.1080/87565641.2019.1677667.

Aydmune, Y., Lipina, S., & Introzzi, I. (2017). Definiciones y métodos de entrenamiento de la inhibición en la niñez, desde una perspectiva neuropsicológica. Una revisión sistemática. Revista Argentina de Ciencias del Comportamiento (RACC), 3 (9), 104–141. Retrieved from: http://www.revistas.unc.edu.ar.

Aydmune, Y. S., Introzzi, I. M., Zamora, E. V., & Lipina, S. J. (2016). Developmental science and executive function. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25 (1), 3–7. doi:10.1177/0963721415622634.

Aydmune, Y. S., Introzzi, I. M., Zamora, E. V., & Lipina, S. J. (2018). Diseño, implementación y análisis de transferencia de una tarea de entrenamiento de inhibición cognitiva para niños escolares. Un estudio piloto. Psicología Educativa, 24 , 63–74. doi:10.5093/psed2018a11.

Bezdjian, S., Tuvblad, C., Wang, P., Raine, A., & Baker, L. A. (2014). Motor impulsivity during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal biometric analysis of the go/no-go task in 9-to 18-year-old twins. Developmental Psychology, 50 (11), 2549–2557. doi:10.1037/a0038037.

Blair, C., & Razza, R. (2007). Relating Effortful Control, Executive Function, and False Belief Understanding to Emerging Math and Literacy Ability in Kindergarten. Child Development, 78 (2), 647–663. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01019.x.

Borella, E., Carretti, B., & Lanfranchi, S. (2013). Inhibitory mechanisms in down syndrome: Is there a specific or general deficit? Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34 (1), 65–71. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.07.017.

Borella, E., Carretti, B., & Mammarella, I. (2006). Do working memory and susceptibility to interference predict individual differences in fluid intelligence? European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 18 (1), 51–69. doi:10.1080/09541440500215962.

Borella, E., Carretti, B., & Pelegrina, S. (2010). The specific role of inhibition in reading comprehension in good and poor comprehenders. Journal of Learning disabilities, 43 (6), 541–552. doi:10.1177/0022219410371676.

Borella, E., & De Ribaupierre, A. (2014). The role of working memory, inhibition, and processing speed in text comprehension in children. Learning and Individual Differences, 34 , 86–92. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2014.05.0011041-6080

Brown, J. (1958). Some tests of the decay theory of immediate memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10 , 12–21. doi:10.1080/17470215808416249.

Burgess, G. C., Gray, J. R., Conway, A. R., & Braver, T. S. (2011). Neural mechanisms of interference control underlie the relationship between fluid intelligence and working memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140 (4), 674–692. doi:10.1037/a0024695.

Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1995). Diseños experimentales y cuasi-experimentales en la investigación social (M. Kitaigorodzki, trad. 1st edition in Spanish 1973; 7th reprint). Buenos Aires: Amorrortu (original work published in 1966).

Canet Juric, L., Andrés, M. L., Demagistri, S., Mascarello, G., & Burin, D. (2015). Rol de las funciones inhibitorias en la memoria de trabajo: evidencia en niños y adolescentes. Pensamiento Psicológico, 13 (2), 109–121. doi:10.11144/javerianacali.ppsi13-2.rfim.

Carlson, S. M. (2005). Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28 (2), 595–616. doi:10.1207/s15326942dn2802_3.

Cattell, R. B., & Horn, J. L. (1978). A check on the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence with description of new subtest designs. Journal of Educational Measurement, 15 (3), 139–164. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3984.1978.tb00065.x.

Cayssials, A., Albajari, V., Aldrey, A., Fernández Liporace, M., Naisberg, C., & Scheinsohn, M. J. (1993). Carpeta de Evaluación Escala Coloreada. Adaptación argentina. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Paidos.

Christ, S. E., Kester, L. E., Bodner, K. E., & Miles, J. H. (2011). Evidence for selective inhibitory impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychology, 25 (6), 690–701. doi:10.1037/a0024256.

Conway, A. R. A., Jarrold, C., Kane, M. J., Miyake, A., & Towse, J. N. E. (2007). Variation in working memory. An introduction. In Variation in working memory (pp. 3–20). New York, USA: Oxford university press.

Cozzani, F., Usai, M. C., & Zanobini, M. (2013). Linguistic abilities and executive function in the third year of life. Rivista di Psicolinguistica Applicata/Journal of Applied Psycholinguistics, 13 (1), 25–43. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Maria_-Carmen_Usai/publication/ 258891523_LINGUISTIC_ABILITIES_AND_EXECUTIVE_FUNCTION_IN_THE_THIRD_YEAR_OF_LIFE/links/00b7d5295cedb4cbb4000000.pdf.

Cragg, L., & Nation, K. (2008). Go or no go? developmental improvements in the efficiency of response inhibition in mid-childhood. Developmental Science, 11 (6), 819–827. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00730.x.

Cycowicz, Y. M., Friedman, D., Rothstein, M., & Snodgrass, J. G. (1997). Picture naming by young children: Norms for name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 65 (2), 171–237. doi:10.1006/jecp.1996.2356.

Darowski, E. S., Helder, E., Zacks, R. T., Hasher, L., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2008). Age-related differences in cognition: The role of distraction control. Neuropsychologia, 22 (5), 638–644. doi:10.1037/0894-4105.22.5.638.

Davidson, M., Amso, D., Anderson, L., & Diamond, A. (2006). Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4 to 13 years: Evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition and task switching. Neuropsychologia, 44 (11), 20–37. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.02.006.

Demagistri, M. S., Canet, L., Naveira, L., & Richard’s, M. (2012). Memoria de trabajo, mecanismos inhibitorios y rendimiento lecto-comprensivo en grupos de comprendedores de secundaria básica. Revista Chilena de Neuropsicología, 7 (2), 72–78. doi:10.5839/rcnp.2012.0702.06.

Dempster, F. N. (1992). The rise and fall of the inhibitory mechanism: Toward a unified theory of cognitive development and aging. Developmental Review, 12 (1), 45–75. doi:10.1016/0273-2297(92)90003-K.

Dempster, F. N. (1993). Resistance to interference: Developmental changes in a basic processing dimension. En M. L. Howe & R. Pasnak (Eds.), Emerging themes in cognitive development. Vol. 1: Foundations (pp. 3–27). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Dempster, F. N., & Corkhill, A. J. (1999). Interference and inhibition in cognition and behaviour: Unifying themes for educational psychology. Educational Psychology Review, 11 , 1–88. doi:10.1023/A:1021992632168.

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64 (1), 135–168. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750.

Diamond, A. (2016). Why improving and assessing executive functions early in life is critical. In Griffin, J., McCardle, P. and Freund, L. (ed) Executive Functions in Pre-school Age-Children. Integrating Measurement, Neurodevelopment and Translational Research, (pp 11-44). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Duan, X., Wei, S., Wang, G., & Shi, J. (2010). The relationship between executive functions and intelligence on 11-to 12-year-old children. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 54 (4), 419–431. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologieaktuell.com/journale/psychological-test-andassessment-modeling.html.

Espy, K. A., McDiarmid, M., Cwik, M., Senn, T., Hamby, A., & Stalets, M. (2004). The contribution of executive functions to emergent mathematic skills in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26 (1), 456–465.

doi:10.1207/s15326942dn2601_6.

Ferrer, E., O’Hare, E. D., & Bunge, S. A. (2009). Fluid reasoning and the developing brain. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 3 (1), 46. doi:10.3389/neuro.01.003.2009.

Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2004). The relations among inhibition and interference control functions: a latent-variable analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133 (1), 101–135. doi:10.1177/0963721411429458.

Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2017). Unity and diversity of executive functions: Individual differences as a window on cognitive structure. Cortex, 86, 186–204. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2016.04.023.

Gandolfi, E., Viterbori, P., Traverso, L., & Usai, M. C. (2014). Inhibitory processes in toddlers: a latentvariable approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 5 , 1–11. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00381.

Gardner, R. C. (2003). Estadística para Psicología usando SPSS para Windows. México: Pearson Educación.

Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134 (1), 31–60. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.134.1.31.

Goikoetxea, E. (2000). Frecuencia de producción de las respuestas a 52 categorías verbales en niños de primaria. Psicológica, 21 , 61–89. Retrieved from: http://uag.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=16921104.

Harnishfeger, K. K., & Pope, R. S. (1996). Intending to forget: The development of cognitive inhibition in directed forgetting. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 63 , 292–315. doi:10.1006/jecp.1996.0032.

Hasher, L., Lustig, C., & Zacks, R. T. (2007). Inhibitory mechanisms and the control of attention. In A. Conway, C. Jarrold, M. Kane, A. Miyake, A. & J. Towse (Eds.), Variation in working memory, (pp. 227-249). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hernández, S. R., Fernández Collado, C., & Baptista Lucio, P. (2015). Metodología de la Investigación. (6th ed.). México: McGraw Hill.

Hofmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16 (3), 174–180. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2012.01.006.

Howard, S. J., Johnson, J., & Pascual-Leone, J. (2014). Clarifying inhibitory control: Diversity and development of attentional inhibition. Cognitive Development, 31 (1), 1–21. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2014.03.001.

Huizinga, M., Dolan, C. V., & van der Molen, M. W. (2006). Age-related change in executive function: Developmental trends and a latent variable analysis. Neuropsychologia, 44 (11), 2017–2036. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.01.010.

Introzzi, I., & Canet Juric, L. (2012). TAC: Tareas de Autorregulación Cognitiva (Application for deposit in custody of unpublished work in the National Copyright Office. File No. 5068904).

Introzzi, I., Richard’s, M., García Coni, A., Aydmune, Y., Comesaña, A., Canet Juric, L., & Galli, J. (2016). El desarrollo de la inhibición perceptual en niños y adolescentes a través del paradigma de búsqueda visual conjunta. Revista Argentina de Neuropsicología, 29 , 1–15. Retrieved from: http://www.revneuropsi.com.ar.

Introzzi, I. M., Canet Juric, L., Aydmune, Y., & Stelzer, F. (2016). Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence on Inhibition. Revista Colombiana de Psicología, 25 (2), 351–368. doi:10.15446/rcp.v25n2.52011.

Ison, M. S., & Carrada, M. (2012). Tipificación argentina del Test de Percepción de Diferencias (CARAS). In L.L. Thurstone & M. Yela. Test de Percepción de Diferencias Revisado (CARAS-R, pp. 37-63). Madrid: Tea.

Kail, R. (2002). Developmental change in proactive interference. Child Development, 73 , 1703–1714. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00500.

Liu, Q., Zhu, X., Ziegler, A., & Shi, J. (2015). The effects of inhibitory control training for preschoolers on reasoning ability and neural activity. Scientific Reports, 5 (1), 1–10. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00500.

Logan, G. D., Schachar, R. J., & Tannock, R. (1997). Psychological science. Scientific Reports, 8 (1), 60–64. doi:10.1111/j.14679280.1997.tb00545.x.

MacLeod, C. (2007). The concept of inhibition in cognitivion. In D. Gorfein & C. MacLeod (eds). Inhibition in Cognition (pp. 3-24). Washington: APA.

MacLeod, C. M., Dodd, M. D., Sheard, E. D., Wilson, D. E., & Bibi, U. (2003). In opposition to inhibition. In B. H. Ross (Ed.). The psychology of learning and Motivation (Vol. 43, pp. 163–214). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Mann, T., De Ridder, D., & Fujita, K. (2013). Self-regulation of health behavior: social psychological approaches to goal setting and goal striving. Health Psychology, 32 (5), 487–498. doi:10.1037/a0028533.

McArdle, J. J., Ferrer-Caja, E., Hamagami, F., & Woodcock, R. W. (2002). Comparative longitudinal structural analyses of the growth and decline of multiple intellectual abilities over the life span. Developmental Psychology, 38 (1), 115–142. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.38.1.115.

McCall, R. B. (1994). What process mediates predictions of childhood IQ from infant habituation and recognition memory? Speculations on the roles of inhibition and rate of information processing. Intelligence, 18 (2), 107–125. doi:10.1016/0160-2896(94)90022-1.

McCall, R. B., & Carriger, M. S. (1993). A metaanalysis of infant habituation and recognition memory performance as predictors of later IQ. Child Development, 64 (1), 57–79. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1993.tb02895.x.

McCoy, D. C. (2019). Measuring Young Children’s Executive Function and Self-Regulation in Classrooms and Other Real-World Settings. Clinical child and family psychology review, 22 (1), 63–74. doi:10.1007/s10567-019-00285-1.

McGrew, K. S. (2009). CHC theory and the human cognitive abilities project: Standing on the shoulders of the giants of psychometric intelligence research. Intelligence, 37 , 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2008.08.004.

Michel, F., & Anderson, M. (2009). Using the antisaccade task to investigate the relationship between the development of inhibition and the development of intelligence. Developmental Science, 12 , 272–288. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00759.x.

Peterson, L., & Peterson, M. J. (1959). Shortterm retention of individual verbal items. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58 , 193–198. doi:10.1037/h0049234.

Pimperton, H., & Nation, K. (2010). Suppressing irrelevant information from working memory: Evidence for domain-specific deficits in poor comprehenders. Journal of Memory and Language, 62 (4), 380–391. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2010.02.005.

Pértegas Díaz, S., & Pita Fernández, S. (2002). Determinación del tamaño muestral para calcular la significación del coeficiente de correlación lineal. Cuadernos de Atención Primaria, 9 , 209–211.

Raven, J., Court, J., & Raven, J. (1993). Test de Matrices Progresivas. Escalas Coloreada, General y Avanzada. Manual. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Paidos.

Richard’s, M. M., Introzzi, I., Zamora, E., Vernucci, S., Stelzer, F., & Andrés, M. L. (2017). Evidencias de validez convergente del paradigma Stop-Signal para la medición de la inhibición comportamental en niños. Revista Argentina de Neuropsicología, 30 , 50–65. Retrieved from: http://www.revneuropsi.com.ar/.

Sala, G., & Gobet, F. (2017). Working memory training in typically developing children: A meta-analysis of the available evidence. Developmental Psychology, 53 (4), 671–685. doi:10.1037/dev0000265.

Schachar, R., & Logan, G. D. (1990). Impulsivity and inhibitory control in normal development and childhood psychopathology. Developmental Psychology, 26 (5), 710–720. doi:10.1037//0012-1649.26.5.710.

Schachar, R., Tannock, R., Marriott, M., & Logan, G. (1995). Deficient inhibitory control in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23 (4), 411–437. doi:10.1007/bf01447206.

Sheese, B., & Lipina, S. (2011). Funciones ejecutivas: consideraciones sobre su evaluación y el diseño de intervenciones orientadas a optimizarlas. En S. Lipina y M. Sigman (Eds.). La pizarra de Babel. Puentes entre neurociencia, psicología y educación (pp. 229-242). Buenos Aires: Libros del Zorzal.

Stelzer, F. (2014). Inteligencia, funciones ejecutivas y temperamento. sus relaciones al inicio de la escolaridad básica (tesis doctoral). Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Retrieved from: http://www.mdp.edu.ar/psicologia/psico/doctorado/tesis/stelzer.pdf.

Stelzer, F., Andés, M. L., Canet-Juric, L., & Introzzi, I. (2016). Memoria de Trabajo e Inteligencia Fluida. Una Revisión de sus Relaciones. Acta de Investigación Psicológica-Psychological Research Records, 6 (1), 2302–2316. doi:10.1016/s2007-4719(16)30051-5.

Thurstone, L. L., & Yela, M. (2012). Test de percepción de diferencias (caras-r). Madrid: Tea. Tiego, J., Testa, R., Bellgrove, M. A., Pantelis, C., & Whittle, S. (2018). A hierarchical model of inhibitory control. Frontiers in Psychology, 9 , 1339. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01339.

Traverso, L., Fontana, M., Usai, M. C., & Passolunghi, M. C. (2018). Response inhibition and interference suppression in individuals with down syndrome compared to typically developing children. Frontiers in Psychology, 9 . doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00660.

Van Gerven, P. W. M., Hurks, P. P. M., Bovend’Eerdt, T. J. H., & Adam, J. J. (2016). Switch hands! mapping proactive and reactive cognitive control across the life span. Developmental Psychology, 52 (6), 960–971. doi:10.1037/dev0000116.

Vara, A. S., Pang, E. W., Vidal, J., Anagnostou, E., & Taylor, M. J. (2014). Neural mechanisms of inhibitory control continue to mature in adolescence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 10 , 129–139. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2014.08.009.

Verbruggen, F., Chambers, C. D., & Logan, G. D. (2013). Fictitious inhibitory differences: How skewness and slowing distort the estimation of stopping latencies. Psychological Science, 24 (3), 352–362. doi:10.1177/0956797612457390.

Verbruggen, F., & Logan, G. D. (2009). Models of response inhibition in the stop-signal and stop-change paradigms. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 33 (5), 647–661. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.08.014.

Volckaert, A. M. S., & Noël, M. P. (2015). Training executive function in preschoolers reduce externalizing behaviors. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 4 (1), 37–47. doi:10.1016/j.tine.2015.02.001.

Volckaert, A. M. S., & Noël, M. P. (2016). Externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers: Impact of an inhibition training. Journal of Psychological Abnormalities, 5 , 154. doi:10.4172/2471-9900.1000154.

Zellner, M., & Baüml, K. (2004). Retrieval inhibition in episodic recall. In A. Mecklinger, H. Zimmer, & U. Lindenberger (Eds.), Bound in memory: Insights from behavioral and neuropsychological studies (pp.1–26). Aachen, Germany: Shaker Verlag.

Zhao, X., Chen, L., & Maes, J. H. (2016). Training and transfer effects of response inhibition training in children and adults. Developmental Science, 20 (6), 1–12. doi:10.1111/desc.12511.

Zhao, X., & Jia, L. (2018). Training and transfer effects of interference control training in children and young adults. Psychological Research, 1–12. doi:10.1007/s00426-018-1007-6.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.