A Brief Version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS): Validity Evidence in Ecuadorian Population
Geovanny Genaro Reivan-Ortiz
Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Ecuador.Universidad de Palermo, Argentina.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0643-8022
Patricia Elizabeth Ortiz Rodas
Associate Department Teacher. University of Cuenca. Ecuador.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0180-5911
Patricia Natali Reivan Ortiz
Professor of Pathology Laboratory. Catholic University of Cuenca. Ecuador.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0035-2092
PDF

Keywords

Difficulties in emotional regulation
psychometric analysis
Ecuadorian university students

How to Cite

Reivan-Ortiz, G., Rodas, P. E., & Reivan Ortiz, P. (2020). A Brief Version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS): Validity Evidence in Ecuadorian Population. International Journal of Psychological Research, 13(2), 14-24. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.4325
PDF

Abstract

Due to the scarcity of evaluation instruments on the construct of difficulties in emotional regulation in the Ecuadorian university context, the objective of the present study was to adapt linguistically and to study the psychometric properties of the Difficulty Scale in Emotional Regulation (DERS) in a sample of Ecuadorian university students. A non-probability sample of 1172 participants between 17 and 32 years of age (M = 21.99; DT = 2.49), which consisted of 58.6% women and 41.4% men, was used. The research was carried out in three stages. The first study evaluated the Ecuadorian linguistic adaptation of the scale. The second study referred to the factorization by main axes identifying five factors (Lack of emotional understanding; Limited access to regulation strategies; Difficulties in impulse control; Interferences in goal-directed behaviors; Lack of emotional clarity) theoretically interpretable, which explain 49.22% of the variance. The third study developed a confirmatory factor analysis that specified an acceptable fit of the model (GFI = .95; AGFI =.95; NFI = .94; RMR = .11). The reliability coefficients are acceptable as .90 Cronbach’s alpha and .91 McDonald’s omega. In conclusion, it is mentioned that the Ecuadorian version of the DERS in a university sample exhibits good psychometric characteristics of internal structure and responses.

PDF

References

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4a.ed) Washington, DC EE. UU.

Argimon, J., & Jiménez, J. (2013). Métodos de investigación clínica y epidemiológica (4th ed.). Elsevier.

Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine, 25 (24), 3186–3191. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200012150-00014.

Behnke, S. (2006). APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: An ethics code for all psychologists. . . ? Monitor on Psychology, 37(8), 66. https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/.

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. The Guildford Press.

Bullinger, M., Alonso, J., Apolone, G., Leplège, A., Sullivan, M.,Wood-Dauphinee, S., Gandek, B.,Wagner, A., Aaronson, N., Bech, P., Fukuhara, S., Kaasa, S., & Ware Jr., J. E. (1998). Translating health status questionnaires and evaluating their quality: the IQOLA project approach. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 51 (11), 913–923. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(98)00082-1.

Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1993). Early emotional instability, prosocial behaviour, and aggression: Some methodological aspects. European Journal of personality, 7 (1), 19–36. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.2410070103.

Carvajal, A., Centeno, C., Watson, R., Martnez, M., & Sanz Rubiales, Á. (2011). Cómo validar un instrument de medida de la salud? An Sist Sanit NavaR, 34 (1), 63–72.

Diego, G. A., Tomás, M. B., de Oliver, J. S. P., Limonero, J. T., & Navarro, R. M. (2018). La regulación emocional en el ámbito de la atención primaria. Información psicológica, (115), 2–13.

Dunn, T. J., Baguley, T., & Brunsden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: A practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. British Journal of Psychology, 105 (3), 399–412. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12046.

Ferrando, P. J., & Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2017). Program FACTOR at 10: Origins, development and future directions. Psicothema, 29 (2), 236–240. https://doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2016.304.

Gálvez-Hernández, C. L., Rivera-Fong, L., Linares-Buitrón, A. V., Zapata-Barrera, S., Mohar-Betancourt, A., Calleja, N., & Villarreal-Garza, C. (2019). Validación del Cuestionario de Regulación Emocional Cognitiva en pacientes mexicanas con cáncer de mama. Salud pública de México, 60 (5), 488–489. https://doi.org/10.21149/9191.

García, M., Rodríguez, F., & Carmona, L. (2009). Validación de cuestionarios. Reumatol Clin, 5 (4), 171–177.

Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual differences, 30 (8), 1311–1327. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00113-6.

Gaskin, J., & Lim, J. (2016). Model fit measures [Amos plugin]. Gaskinations StatWiki.

Glenn, C. R., & Klonsky, E. D. (2009). Emotion dysregulation as a core feature of borderline personality disorder. Journal of personality disorders, 23 (1), 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2009.23.1.20.

González, A., Donolo, D., & Rinaudo, C. (2009). Emociones académicas en universitarios: Su relación con las metas de logro. Ansiedad y Estrés, 15 (2–3), 263–277.

Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of psychopathology and behavioral assessment, 26 (1), 41–54. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007455.08539.94.

Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2008). The relationship between emotion dysregulation and deliberate selfharm among female undergraduate students at an urban commuter university. Cognitive behaviour therapy, 37 (1), 14–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506070701819524.

Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of personality and social psychology, 85 (2), 197. https://doi.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.197.

Gross, J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2 (3), 271–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271.

Gross, J., & John, O. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85 (2), 348–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348.

Guzmán-González, M., Trabucco, C., Urzúa, A., Garrido, L., & Leiva, J. (2014). Validez y confiabilidad de la versión adaptada al español de la Escala de Dificultades de Regulación Emocional (DERS-E) en población chilena. Terapia psicológica, 32 (1), 19–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-48082014000100002.

Hambleton, R. K., & Kanjee, A. (1995). Increasing the validity of cross-cultural assessments: Use of improved methods for test adaptations. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 11 (3), 147–157. https://doi/10.1027/1015-5759.11.3.147.

Hambleton, R. K., & Bollwark, J. (1991). Adapting Tests for Use in Different Cultures: Technical Issues and Methods. Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.

Harkness, J., & Schoua-Glusberg, A. (1998). Questionnaires in translation. Harkness JA, ed. Crosscultural survey equivalence. ZUMA-Nachrichten Spezial, 3. Mannheim: ZUMA: 87-126.

Hernández Sampieri, R., Fernández Collado, C., & Baptista Lucio, P. (2015). Metodología de la investigación (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Hervás, G., & Jódar, R. (2008). Adaptación al castellano de la Escala de Dificultades en la Regulación Emocional. Clínica y Salud, 19 (2), 139–156. http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/clinsa/v19n2/v19n2a01.pdf.

Hoshmand, L. T., & Austin, G. W. (1987). Validation studies of a multifactor cognitive-behavioral Anger Control Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 51 (3), 417–432. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5103_9.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6 (1), 1–55. http://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.

IBM Corp. (2016). IBM SPSS statistics: Versión 24 [Computer software]. IBM Corp. https://www.ibm.com/support/pages/downloading-ibm-spss-statistics-24.

Kamholz, B. W., Hayes, A. M., Carver, C. S., Gulliver, S. B., & Perlman, C. A. (2006). Identification and evaluation of cognitive affect-regulation strategies: Development of a self-report measure. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30 (2), 227–262. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9013-1.

Katz, L. F., Wilson, B., & Gottman, J. M. (1999). Metaemotion philosophy and family adjustment: Making an emotional connection. In M. J. Cox & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), The advances in family research series. Conflict and cohesion in families: Causes and consequences (pp. 131165). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1999-02032-006.

Kinkead, A., Garrido, L., & Uribe, N. (2011). Modalidades evaluativas en la regulación emocional: Aproximaciones actuales. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 20 (1), 29–39. https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/2819/281921807002.pdf.

Kring, A., & Neale, J. (1996). Do schizophrenics show a disjunctive relationship among expressive, experiential, and psychophysiological components of emotion? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105 (2), 249–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.105.2.249.

Lane, R. D., Quinlan, D. M., Schwartz, G. E., Walker, P. A., & Zeitlin, S. B. (1990). The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale: A cognitive-developmental measure of emotion. Journal of personality assessment, 55 (1–2), 124–134. http://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.1990.9674052.

Larsen, R. J., & Prizmic, Z. (2004). Affect regulation. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 40-61). Guilford Press.

Lasarte, O. F., Díaz, E. R., & Sáez, I. A. (2019). Rendimiento académico, apoyo social percibido e inteligencia emocional en la universidad. EJIHPE: European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 9 (1), 39–49. https://doi.org/10.30552/ejihpe.v9i1.315.

Love, J., Selker, R., Verhagen, J., Marsman, M., Gronau, Q. F., Jamil, T., Smira, M., Epskamp, S., Wild, A., Ly, A., Matzke, D.,Wagenmakers, E.-J., Morey, R. D., & Rouder, J. N. (2015). Software to sharpen your stats. APS Observer, 28 (3), 27–29.

Martínez-Monteagudo, M. C. (2019). Ansiedad escolar en el ámbito universitario. Diferencias de sexo. In R. Roig-Vila (Ed.), Investigación e innovación en la enseñanza superior. Nuevos contexts, nuevas ideas (pp. 298-306). Ediciones Octaedro.

McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified approach. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

McNally, A. M., Palfai, T. P., Levine, R. V., & Moore, B. M. (2003). Attachment dimensions and drinking-related problems among young adults: The mediational role of coping motives. Addictive behaviors, 28 (6), 1115–1127. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(02)00224-1.

Medrano, L. A., & Trógolo, M. (2014). Validación de la escala de dificultades en la regulación emocional en la población universitaria de Córdoba, Argentina. Universitas Psychologica, 13 (4), 1345–1356.

Mennin, D. S., Holaway, R. M., Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., & Heimberg, R. G. (2007). Delineating components of emotion and its dysregulation in anxiety and mood psychopathology. Behavior therapy, 38 (3), 284–302. https://doi.org/10.101-6/j.beth.2006.09.001.

Muñiz, J., Elosua, P., & Hambleton, R. K. (2013). Directrices para la traducción y adaptación de los tests: Segunda edición. Psicothema 2013, 25, 151–157. https://doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2013.24.

Muñoz-Martínez, A. M., Vargas, R. M., & Hoyos-González, J. S. (2016). Escala de dificultades en regulación emocional (Ders): análisis factorial en una muestra colombiana [Difficulties in emotion regulation scale (Ders): factor analysis in a colombian sample]. Acta colombiana de psicología, 19 (1), 233–244. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.14718/ACP.2016.19.1.10.

Nunnally, J. C. (1975). The study of change in evaluation research: principles conconcerning measurement,

experimental design and analysis. In E. L. Streuning and M. Guttentag (Eds.) Handbook of Evauation Research (pp. 101–138). Sage.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (Vol. 3). McGraw-Hill.

Parasi, C. F. (2019). Ansiedad ante los exámenes y rendimiento académico en estudiantes de secundaria de un colegio particular de Miraflores [Specialization thesis on psychopedagogy, Universidad Ricardo Palma]. http://repositorio.urp.edu.pe/handle/URP/2460.

Pascual, A., Etxebarria, I., Cruz, M., & Echeburúa, E. (2011). Las variables emocionales como factores de riesgo de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. International journal of clinical and health psychology, 11 (2), 229–247.

Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. (2002). Academic emotions in students self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37 (2), 91–105. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3702_4.

Pekrun, R., Molfenter, S., Titz, W., & Perry, R. (2000). Emotion, learning, and achievement in university students: Longitudinal studies [Paper presentation]. American Educational Research Association annual meeting, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Ramada-Rodilla, J., Serra-Pujadas, C., & Delclós-Clanchet, G. (2013). Adaptación cultural y validación de cuestionarios de salud: Revisión y recomendaciones metodológicas. Salud Pública Méx 2013, 55 (1), 57–66.

Rovira, D. P., Martínez, F., Sevillano, V., Mendiburo, A., & Campos, M. (2012). Medida de estilos de regulación afectiva (MARS) ampliada en ira y tristeza. Psicothema, 24 (2), 249–254. http://www.psicothema.com/pdf/4007.pdf.

Ruiz, M. (2000). Introducción a los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales. UNED Ediciones.

Schutz, P. A., Distefano, C., Benson, J., & Davis, H. A. (2004). The emotional regulation during testtaking scale. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 17 (3), 253–269. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615800410001710861.

Serppe, M., Chemisquy, S., Oros, L., Díaz, J., Barasz, V.,Waigel, N., & Ernst, C. (2018). Qué sabemos acerca del perfeccionismo infantil en Argentina? Revista de Psicología, 13 (25), 55–69.

Silva, C. (2005). Regulación emocional y psicopatología: El modelo de vulnerabilidad/resiliencia. Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría, 43 (3), 201–209.

Silva, J. R. (2008). Restricción alimentaria y sobrealimentación: Un modelo de la neurociencia afectiva. Revista médica de Chile, 136 (10), 1336–1342.

Stanton, A. L., Kirk, S. B., Cameron, C. L., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2000). Coping through emotional approach: Scale construction and validation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 78 (6), 1150–1169. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.78.6.1150.

Streiner, D., & Norman, G. (2008). Health measurement scales. A practical guide to their development and use (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Supervía, P. U., Bordás, C. S., & Abad, J. J. M. (2020). Relaciones entre la inteligencia emocional, el burnout académico y el rendimiento en adolescentes escolares [Relationship between emotional intelligence, academic burnout and school performance in adolescent students]. CES Psicología, 13 (1), 125–139.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.

Tejeda, M., Garca, R., González-Forteza, C., & Palos, P. (2012). Propiedades psicométricas de la escala Dificultades en la Regulación Emocional en español (DERS-E) para adolescentes mexicanos. Salud mental, 35 (6), 521–526.

Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the society for research in child development, 59 (2–3), 25–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5834.1994.tb01276.x.

Toro, M. T. (2019). Relajación de jacobson para disminuir la ansiedad originada por evaluaciones e incremento del rendimiento académico en estudiantes de psicología de una universidad privada de Lima Metropolitana. Avances en Psicología, 27 (2), 67–176.

Turner, J., & Schallert, D. (2001). Expectancy-value relationships of shame reactions and shame resiliency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93 (2), 320–329.

Ventura-León, J. L. (2018). Intervalos de confianza para coeficiente Omega: Propuesta para el cálculo. Adicciones, 30 (1), 77–78.

Vera, J. A., & Morales, S. T. (2019). Inteligencia emocional y rendimiento académico en estudiantes universitarios de nutrición. Revista Investigación en Educación Médica, 8 (31), 82–91.

Waller, N. G. (2008). Commingled samples: A neglected source of bias in reliability analysis. Applied Psychological

Measurement, 32 (3), 211–223.

Zinbarg, R. E., Revelle, W., Yovel, I., & Li, W. (2005). Cronbach’s α, Revelle’s β, and McDonalds ω H: Their relations with each other and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. psychometrika, 70 (1), 123–133.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.