Effect of Violence and School Victimization on Suicidal Ideation in Mexican Adolescents


Suicidal ideation
Family Self- Concept

How to Cite

Cruz-Manrique, Y., Herrero Olaizola, J., Cortés-Ayala, M. de L., & Malvaceda-Espinoza, E. (2021). Effect of Violence and School Victimization on Suicidal Ideation in Mexican Adolescents. International Journal of Psychological Research, 14(2), 30–36. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.5109


This study tests a model to predict suicidal ideation in adolescents, considering violence and school victimization, family and academic self-concept, and depressive symptoms as antecedents. 792 Mexican high school adolescents participated (49.4% women, 50.6% men) between 11 and 16 years old (M = 13.3,D.T. = 1.0), selected with a non-probabilistic sampling for convenience. The Suicidal Ideation, Violent Behavior at School, Victimization at School, Self-Concept Form-5, and CES-D scales
were administered. From Structural Equation Models, the results showed that the model that best fits indicates a double relationship between school victimization and suicidal ideation:  direct and positive effect on suicidal thoughts, and, on the other hand, an indirect and negative effect through family support, and positive with depressive symptoms. Family self-concept was an important protection factor. 



Bentler, P. M. (1995). EQS Structural Equations Program Manual (Vol. 6). Multivariate Software.

Bernaras, E., Jaureguizar, J., & Garaigordobil,M. (2019). Child and adolescent depression: A review of theories, evaluation instruments, prevention programs, and treatments. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 (543), 24. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00543.

Cardoso, J. B., Szlyk, H. S., Goldbach, J., Swank, P., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2018). General and ethnic biased bullying among latino students: Exploring risks of depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 20 (4), 816–822. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-017-0593-5.

Cava, M. J., Musitu, G., & Murgui, S. (2007). Individual and social risk factors related to overt victimization in a sample of spanish adolescents. Psychological Reports, 101 (1), 275–290. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.101.1.275-290.

Clemmensen, L., Møllegaard Jepsen, J. R., Os, J. V., Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M., Rimvall, M. K., Olsen, E. M., Rask, C. U., Bartels-Velthuis, A. A., Skovgaard, A. M., & Jeppesen, P. (2018). Are theory of mind and bullying separately associated with later academic performance among preadolescents? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 (1), 62–76. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12263.

DeVille, D. C., Whalen, D., Breslin, F. J., Morris, A. S., Khalsa, S. S., Paulus, M. P., & Barch, D. M. (2020). Prevalence and Family-Related Factors Associated With Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and Self-injury in Children Aged 9 to 10 Years. JAMA Network Open, 3 (2), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.20956.

Espelage, D. L., & Holt, M. K. (2013). Suicidal Ideation and School Bullying Experiences After Controlling for Depression and Delinquency. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53 (1), S27–S31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.09.017.

Fredrick, S. S., Malecki, C. K., Demaray, M. K., & Dorio, N. B. (2018). Can social support buffer the association between depression and suicidal ideation in adolescent boys and girls? Psychology in the Schools, 55 (5), 490–505. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22125.

García, F., & Musitu, G. (1999). Af5: Autoconcepto forma 5. Tea Ediciones.

Gómez Tabares, A. S., Núñez, C., Agudelo Osorio, M. P., & Grisales Aguirre, A. M. (2020). Riesgo e Ideación Suicida y su Relación con la Impulsividad y la Depresión en Adolescentes Escolares. Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación Psicológica, 1 (54), 147–163. https://doi.org/10.21865/ridep54.1.12.

Hernández-Bello, L., Hueso-Montoro, C., Gómez-Urquiza, J. L., & Cogollo-Milanés, Z. (2020). Prevalencia y factores asociados a la ideación e intento de suicidio en adolescentes: Revision sistemática. Revista Española de Salud Pública, 94 (1), 1–15.

Herrero, J., & Gracia, E. (2007). Una medida breve de la sintomatología depresiva (CESD-7). Salud Mental, 30 (5).

Herrero, J., & Meneses, J. (2006). Short Web-based versions of the perceived stress (PSS) and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CESD) Scales: A comparison to pencil and paper responses among Internet users. Computers in Human Behavior, 22 (5), 830–846. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2004.03.007.

Holt, M. K., Vivolo-Kantor, A. M., Polanin, J. R., Holland, K. M., DeGue, S., Matjasko, J. L., Wolfe, M., & Reid, G. (2015). Bullying and suicidal ideation and behaviors: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 135 (2), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-1864.

Joiner, T. E. (2009). Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed Through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior. School Psychology Review, 38 (2), 244–248.

Kaufman, T. M. L., Kretschmer, T., Huitsing, G., & Veenstra, R. (2019). Caught in a vicious cycle? explaining bidirectional spillover between parent-child relationships and peer victimization. Development and Psychopathology, 32 (1), 11–20. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579418001360.

Kim, H., & Chun, J. (2019). Bullying victimization, school environment, and suicide ideation and plan: Focusing on youth in low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, 66 (1), 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.07.006.

Klomek, A. B., Barzilay, S., Apter, A., Carli, V., Hoven, C. W., Sarchiapone, M., Hadlaczky, G., Balazs, J., Kereszteny, A., Brunner, R., Kaess, M., Bobes, J., Saiz, P., Cosman, D., Haring, C., Banzer, R., McMahon, E., Keeley, H., Kahn, J., & Wasserman, D. (2019). Bi-directional longitudinal associations between different types of bullying victimization, suicide ideation/attempts, and depression among a large sample of European adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60 (2), 209–215. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12951.

Klomek, A. B., Kleinman, M., Altschuler, E., Marrocco, F., Amakawa, L., & Gould, M. S. (2013). Suicidal Adolescents’ Experiences with Bullying Perpetration and Victimization during High School as Risk Factors for Later Depression and Suicidality. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53 (1), S37–S42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.12.008.

Klomek, A. B., Sourander, A., Kumpulainen, K., Piha, J., Tamminen, T., Moilanen, I., Almqvist, F., & Gould, M. S. (2008). Childhood bullying as a risk for later depression and suicidal ideation among finnish males. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109 (1–2), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.12.226.

Klonsky, E. D., & May, A. M. (2015). The Three-Step Theory (3ST): A New Theory of Suicide Rooted in the “Ideation-to-Action” Framework. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 8 (2), 114–129. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2015.8.2.114.

Klonsky, E. D., May, A. M., & Saffer, B. Y. (2016). Suicide, Suicide Attempts and Suicidal Ideation. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, (12), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093204.

Little, T. D., Henrich, C. C., Jones, S. M., & Hawley, P. H. (2003). Disentangling the “whys” from the “whats” of aggressive behaviour. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27 (2), 122–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250244000128.

Mariño, M. C., Medina-Mora, M. E., Chaparro, J. J., & González-Forteza, C. (1993). Confiabilidad y Estructura Factorial del CES-D en una Muestra de Adolescentes Mexicanos. Revista Mexicana de Psicología, 10 (2), 141–145.

Nurius, P., LaValley, K., & Kim, M. H. (2019). Victimization, Poverty, and Resilience Resources: StressProcess Considerations for Adolescent Mental

Health. School Mental Health, 12 (1), 124–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-019-09335-z.

O’Connor, R., & Kirtley, O. J. (2018). The integrated motivational-volitional model of suicidal behaviour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, (373). https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0268.

Olweus, D. (2013). School bullying: Development and some important challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 751–780. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185516.

Pérez-Amezcua, B., Rivera-Rivera, L., Atienzo, E. E., De Castro, F., Leyva-López, A., & Chávez-Ayala, R. (2010). Prevalencia y factores asociados a la ideación e intento suicida en adolescentes de educación media superior de la república mexicana. Salud Publica de México, 52 (4), 324–333.

Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1 (3), 385–401. https://doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306.

Roberts, R. E. (1980). Reliability of the CES-D scale in different ethnic contexts. Psychiatry Research, 2, 125–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(80)90069-4.

Romo, M. L., & Kelvin, E. A. (2016). Impact of bullying victimization on suicide and negative health behaviors among adolescents in latin America. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 40 (5), 347–355.

Ruiz-Robledillo, N., Ferrer-Cascales, R., Albaladejo-Blázquez, N., & Sánchez-SanSegundo, M. (2019). Family and School Contexts as Predictors of Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: The Role of Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8 (12), 2066. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122066.

Salinas-Rodríguez, A., Manrique-Espinoza, B., Acosta- Castillo, I., Téllez-Rojo, M., Franco-Núñez, A., Gutiérrez-Robledo, L. M., & Sosa-Ortiz, A. L. (2013). Validación de un punto de corte para la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos, versión abreviada (CESD-7). Salud Pública de México, 55 (3), 267–274.

Santoyo Castillo, D., & Frías, S. (2014). Acoso escolar en méxico: Actores involucrados y sus características. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Educativos, 44 (4), 13–41.

Strohacker, E., Wright, L., & Watts, S. (2019). Gender, Bullying Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidality. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X19895964.

Tennant, J. E., Klossing, J. J., Demaray, M. K., Dorio, N., Bixler, T., & Jones, C. (2019). Internalizing Problems of Youth Involved in Bullying via Different Participant Role Combinations and Gender. School Psychology Review, 48 (3), 222–236. https://doi.org/10.17105/SPR-2017-0078.V48-3.

Valdés Cuervo, A., Tánori Quintana, J., Carlos Martínez, E., & Wendlandt Amezaga, T. R. W. (2018). Challenging Behavior Parental Conflict and Community Violence in Students with Aggressive Behavior. International Journal of Psychological Research, 11 (1), 50–57. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.1777.

Varela Garay, R. M., Ávila, M. E., & Martinez, B. (2013). Violencia escolar: Un análisis desde los diferentes contextos de interacción. Psychosocial Intervention, 22 (1), 25–32. https://doi.org/10.5093/in2013a4.

Vega-Cauich, J. I. (2019). Prevalencia del bullying en méxico: Un meta-análisis del bullying tradicional y cyberbullying. Diversitas, 15 (1), 111–127. https://doi.org/10.15332/1794-9998.2019.0001.09.

Walters, G. D. (2020). School-Age Bullying Victimization and Perpetration: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies and Research. Trauma, Violence & Abuse. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838020906513.

World Health Organization. (2014). Preventing suicide: A global imperative. World Health Organization.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.