How to Cite
Cruz-Manrique, Y., Herrero Olaizola, J., Cortés-Ayala, M. de L., & Malvaceda-Espinoza, E. (2021). Effect of Violence and School Victimization on Suicidal Ideation in Mexican Adolescents. International Journal of Psychological Research, 14(2), 30–36. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.5109
License terms
The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.


This study tests a model to predict suicidal ideation in adolescents, considering violence and school victimization, family and academic self-concept, and depressive symptoms as antecedents. 792 Mexican high school adolescents participated (49.4% women, 50.6% men) between 11 and 16 years old (M = 13.3,D.T. = 1.0), selected with a non-probabilistic sampling for convenience. The Suicidal Ideation, Violent Behavior at School, Victimization at School, Self-Concept Form-5, and CES-D scales
were administered. From Structural Equation Models, the results showed that the model that best fits indicates a double relationship between school victimization and suicidal ideation:  direct and positive effect on suicidal thoughts, and, on the other hand, an indirect and negative effect through family support, and positive with depressive symptoms. Family self-concept was an important protection factor. 



Bentler, P. M. (1995). EQS Structural Equations Program Manual (Vol. 6). Multivariate Software.

Bernaras, E., Jaureguizar, J., & Garaigordobil,M. (2019). Child and adolescent depression: A review of theories, evaluation instruments, prevention programs, and treatments. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 (543), 24. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00543.

Cardoso, J. B., Szlyk, H. S., Goldbach, J., Swank, P., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2018). General and ethnic biased bullying among latino students: Exploring risks of depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 20 (4), 816–822. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-017-0593-5.

Cava, M. J., Musitu, G., & Murgui, S. (2007). Individual and social risk factors related to overt victimization in a sample of spanish adolescents. Psychological Reports, 101 (1), 275–290. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.101.1.275-290.

Clemmensen, L., Møllegaard Jepsen, J. R., Os, J. V., Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M., Rimvall, M. K., Olsen, E. M., Rask, C. U., Bartels-Velthuis, A. A., Skovgaard, A. M., & Jeppesen, P. (2018). Are theory of mind and bullying separately associated with later academic performance among preadolescents? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 (1), 62–76. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12263.

DeVille, D. C., Whalen, D., Breslin, F. J., Morris, A. S., Khalsa, S. S., Paulus, M. P., & Barch, D. M. (2020). Prevalence and Family-Related Factors Associated With Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and Self-injury in Children Aged 9 to 10 Years. JAMA Network Open, 3 (2), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.20956.

Espelage, D. L., & Holt, M. K. (2013). Suicidal Ideation and School Bullying Experiences After Controlling for Depression and Delinquency. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53 (1), S27–S31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.09.017.

Fredrick, S. S., Malecki, C. K., Demaray, M. K., & Dorio, N. B. (2018). Can social support buffer the association between depression and suicidal ideation in adolescent boys and girls? Psychology in the Schools, 55 (5), 490–505. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22125.

García, F., & Musitu, G. (1999). Af5: Autoconcepto forma 5. Tea Ediciones.

Gómez Tabares, A. S., Núñez, C., Agudelo Osorio, M. P., & Grisales Aguirre, A. M. (2020). Riesgo e Ideación Suicida y su Relación con la Impulsividad y la Depresión en Adolescentes Escolares. Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación Psicológica, 1 (54), 147–163. https://doi.org/10.21865/ridep54.1.12.

Hernández-Bello, L., Hueso-Montoro, C., Gómez-Urquiza, J. L., & Cogollo-Milanés, Z. (2020). Prevalencia y factores asociados a la ideación e intento de suicidio en adolescentes: Revision sistemática. Revista Española de Salud Pública, 94 (1), 1–15.

Herrero, J., & Gracia, E. (2007). Una medida breve de la sintomatología depresiva (CESD-7). Salud Mental, 30 (5).

Herrero, J., & Meneses, J. (2006). Short Web-based versions of the perceived stress (PSS) and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CESD) Scales: A comparison to pencil and paper responses among Internet users. Computers in Human Behavior, 22 (5), 830–846. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2004.03.007.

Holt, M. K., Vivolo-Kantor, A. M., Polanin, J. R., Holland, K. M., DeGue, S., Matjasko, J. L., Wolfe, M., & Reid, G. (2015). Bullying and suicidal ideation and behaviors: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 135 (2), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-1864.

Joiner, T. E. (2009). Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed Through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior. School Psychology Review, 38 (2), 244–248.

Kaufman, T. M. L., Kretschmer, T., Huitsing, G., & Veenstra, R. (2019). Caught in a vicious cycle? explaining bidirectional spillover between parent-child relationships and peer victimization. Development and Psychopathology, 32 (1), 11–20. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579418001360.

Kim, H., & Chun, J. (2019). Bullying victimization, school environment, and suicide ideation and plan: Focusing on youth in low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, 66 (1), 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.07.006.

Klomek, A. B., Barzilay, S., Apter, A., Carli, V., Hoven, C. W., Sarchiapone, M., Hadlaczky, G., Balazs, J., Kereszteny, A., Brunner, R., Kaess, M., Bobes, J., Saiz, P., Cosman, D., Haring, C., Banzer, R., McMahon, E., Keeley, H., Kahn, J., & Wasserman, D. (2019). Bi-directional longitudinal associations between different types of bullying victimization, suicide ideation/attempts, and depression among a large sample of European adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60 (2), 209–215. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12951.

Klomek, A. B., Kleinman, M., Altschuler, E., Marrocco, F., Amakawa, L., & Gould, M. S. (2013). Suicidal Adolescents’ Experiences with Bullying Perpetration and Victimization during High School as Risk Factors for Later Depression and Suicidality. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53 (1), S37–S42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.12.008.

Klomek, A. B., Sourander, A., Kumpulainen, K., Piha, J., Tamminen, T., Moilanen, I., Almqvist, F., & Gould, M. S. (2008). Childhood bullying as a risk for later depression and suicidal ideation among finnish males. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109 (1–2), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.12.226.

Klonsky, E. D., & May, A. M. (2015). The Three-Step Theory (3ST): A New Theory of Suicide Rooted in the “Ideation-to-Action” Framework. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 8 (2), 114–129. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2015.8.2.114.

Klonsky, E. D., May, A. M., & Saffer, B. Y. (2016). Suicide, Suicide Attempts and Suicidal Ideation. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, (12), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093204.

Little, T. D., Henrich, C. C., Jones, S. M., & Hawley, P. H. (2003). Disentangling the “whys” from the “whats” of aggressive behaviour. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27 (2), 122–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250244000128.

Mariño, M. C., Medina-Mora, M. E., Chaparro, J. J., & González-Forteza, C. (1993). Confiabilidad y Estructura Factorial del CES-D en una Muestra de Adolescentes Mexicanos. Revista Mexicana de Psicología, 10 (2), 141–145.

Nurius, P., LaValley, K., & Kim, M. H. (2019). Victimization, Poverty, and Resilience Resources: StressProcess Considerations for Adolescent Mental
Health. School Mental Health, 12 (1), 124–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-019-09335-z.

O’Connor, R., & Kirtley, O. J. (2018). The integrated motivational-volitional model of suicidal behaviour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, (373). https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0268.

Olweus, D. (2013). School bullying: Development and some important challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 751–780. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185516.

Pérez-Amezcua, B., Rivera-Rivera, L., Atienzo, E. E., De Castro, F., Leyva-López, A., & Chávez-Ayala, R. (2010). Prevalencia y factores asociados a la ideación e intento suicida en adolescentes de educación media superior de la república mexicana. Salud Publica de México, 52 (4), 324–333.

Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1 (3), 385–401. https://doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306.

Roberts, R. E. (1980). Reliability of the CES-D scale in different ethnic contexts. Psychiatry Research, 2, 125–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(80)90069-4.

Romo, M. L., & Kelvin, E. A. (2016). Impact of bullying victimization on suicide and negative health behaviors among adolescents in latin America. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 40 (5), 347–355.

Ruiz-Robledillo, N., Ferrer-Cascales, R., Albaladejo-Blázquez, N., & Sánchez-SanSegundo, M. (2019). Family and School Contexts as Predictors of Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: The Role of Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8 (12), 2066. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122066.

Salinas-Rodríguez, A., Manrique-Espinoza, B., Acosta- Castillo, I., Téllez-Rojo, M., Franco-Núñez, A., Gutiérrez-Robledo, L. M., & Sosa-Ortiz, A. L. (2013). Validación de un punto de corte para la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos, versión abreviada (CESD-7). Salud Pública de México, 55 (3), 267–274.

Santoyo Castillo, D., & Frías, S. (2014). Acoso escolar en méxico: Actores involucrados y sus características. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Educativos, 44 (4), 13–41.

Strohacker, E., Wright, L., & Watts, S. (2019). Gender, Bullying Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidality. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X19895964.

Tennant, J. E., Klossing, J. J., Demaray, M. K., Dorio, N., Bixler, T., & Jones, C. (2019). Internalizing Problems of Youth Involved in Bullying via Different Participant Role Combinations and Gender. School Psychology Review, 48 (3), 222–236. https://doi.org/10.17105/SPR-2017-0078.V48-3.

Valdés Cuervo, A., Tánori Quintana, J., Carlos Martínez, E., & Wendlandt Amezaga, T. R. W. (2018). Challenging Behavior Parental Conflict and Community Violence in Students with Aggressive Behavior. International Journal of Psychological Research, 11 (1), 50–57. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.1777.

Varela Garay, R. M., Ávila, M. E., & Martinez, B. (2013). Violencia escolar: Un análisis desde los diferentes contextos de interacción. Psychosocial Intervention, 22 (1), 25–32. https://doi.org/10.5093/in2013a4.

Vega-Cauich, J. I. (2019). Prevalencia del bullying en méxico: Un meta-análisis del bullying tradicional y cyberbullying. Diversitas, 15 (1), 111–127. https://doi.org/10.15332/1794-9998.2019.0001.09.

Walters, G. D. (2020). School-Age Bullying Victimization and Perpetration: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies and Research. Trauma, Violence & Abuse. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838020906513.

World Health Organization. (2014). Preventing suicide: A global imperative. World Health Organization.


Download data is not yet available.

Cited by

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>