Creative Self-Efficacy Scale for Children and Adolescents (CASES): A Development and Validation Study


multidimensional scaling
child and adolescent development

How to Cite

Valquaresma, A., Coimbra, J. L., & Costa, P. (2022). Creative Self-Efficacy Scale for Children and Adolescents (CASES): A Development and Validation Study. International Journal of Psychological Research, 15(1), 55–69.


Creative self-efficacy has emerged as one of the most striking constructs in education. Yet, instruments to assess it in children and adolescents
are scant. This article introduces the CASES, a new creative self-efficacy scale designed to address this concern. The process of development and initial validation of the scale are presented herein. Following the items’ conception, exploratory, and confirmatory factorial analysis was performed. The final structure comprises nine items, evenly distributed by three factors: fluency, elaboration, and personality. Preliminary reliability and validity analysis display good psychometric properties, highlighting CASES as a potentially relevant addition to the creative self-efficacy assessment instruments array. Designed for children and adolescents (ages 3 to 16), it can uphold a developmental approach of creative self-efficacy, with potential implications within educational settings. Thus, it might be of interest for parents, educators, educational psychologists, researchers, and policymakers involved in designing curricula and interventions to nurture and enhance creative potential.


Abbott, D. (2010). Constructing a creative self-efficacy inventory: A mixed-methods inquiry [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nebraska].

Alotaibi, K. N. (2016). Psychometric Properties of Creative Self-Efficacy Inventory Among Distinguished Students in Saudi Arabian Universities. Psychological Reports, 118 (3), 902–917.

Anderson, R. C., & Haney, M. (2020). Reflection in the creative process of early adolescents: The mediating roles of creative metacognition, self-efficacy, and self-concept. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 15 (4), 612–626.

Atwood-Blaine, D., Rule, A. C., & Walker, J. (2019). Creative self-efficacy of children aged 9-14 in a science center using a situated Mobile game. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 33, 100580.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman.

Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 21–41.

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for Constructing Self-Efficacy Scales. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (Vol. 5, pp. 307-337). Information Age Publishing.

Barbot, B., Lubart, T. I., & Besançon, M. (2016). “Peaks, Slumps, and Bumps”: Individual Differences in the Development of Creativity in Children and Adolescents. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2016 (151), 33–45.

Batelle for Kids. (2019). Framework for 21st Century Learning. Batelle for Kids.

Beghetto, R. A. (2006). Creative self-efficacy: Correlates in middle and secondary students. Creativity Research Journal, 18 (4), 447–457.

Beghetto, R. A. (2009). Correlates of intellectual risk taking in elementary school science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46 (2), 210–223.

Beghetto, R. A. (2014). Creative mortification: An initial exploration. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8 (3), 266–276.

Beghetto, R. A., & Dilley, A. E. (2016). Creative aspirations or pipe dreams? Toward understanding creative mortification in children and adolescents. In B. Barbot (Ed.), Perspectives on creativity development (pp. 85–95). Jossey-Bass/Wiley.

Beghetto, R. A., & Karwowski, M. (2017). Toward untangling creative self-beliefs. In M. Karwowski & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), The creative self: Effect of beliefs, self-efficacy, mindset, and identity (pp. 3–22). Elsevier Academic Press.

Beghetto, R. A., Kaufman, J. C., & Baxter, J. (2011). Answering the unexpected questions: Exploring the relationship between students’ creative self-efficacy and teacher ratings of creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics Creativity, and the Arts, 5 (4), 342–349.

Benedek, M., Jung, R. E., & Vartanian, O. (2018). The neural bases of creativity and intelligence: Common ground and differences. Neuropsychologia, 118, 1–3.

Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107 (2), 238–246.

Boateng, G. O., Neilands, T. B., Frongillo, E. A., Melgar-Quiñonez, H. R., & Young, S. L. (2018). Best Practices for Developing and Validating Scales for Health, Social, and Behavioral Research: A Primer. Frontiers in public health, 6, 149.

Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.) The Guilford Press.

Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9 (2), 233–255.

Corazza, G. E. (2017). Organic Creativity forWell-Being in the Post-Information Society. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 13 (4), 599–605.

Craft, A. (2002). Creativity and Early Years Education. Continuum.

Dampérat, M., Jeannot, F., Jongmans, E., & Jolibert, A. (2016). Team creativity: Creative self-efficacy, creative collective efficacy and their determinants. Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 31 (3), 6–25.

Farmer, S., & Tierney, P. (2017). Considering creative self-efficacy: its current state and ideas for future inquiry. In M. Karwowski & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), The Creative Self: effects of beliefs, self-efficacy, mindset, and identity (pp. 23–47). Academic Press.

Fino, E., & Sun, S. (2022). “Let us create!”: The mediating role of Creative Self-Efficacy between personality and Mental Well-Being in university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 188, 111444.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (1), 39–50.

Franke, G., & Sarstedt, M. (2019). Heuristics versus statistics in discriminant validity testing: A comparison of four procedures. Internet Research, 29 (3), 430–447.

Frith, E., Elbich, D. B., Christensen, A. P., Rosenberg, M. D., Chen, Q., Kane, M. J., Silvia, P. J., Seli, P., & Beaty, R. E. (2020). Intelligence and creativity share a common cognitive and neural basis. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 150 (4), 609–632.

Froman, R. D. (2001). Elements to consider in planning the use of factor analysis. Southern Online Journal of Nursing Research, 2 (5), 1–22.

Glăveanu, V. (2015). Creativity as a sociocultural act. Journal of Creative Behavior, 49 (3), 165–180.

Goodman, N. (1978). Ways of worldmaking. Hackett Publishing.

Haase, J., Hoff, E. V., Hanel, P. H. P., & Innes-Ker, Å. (2018). A Meta-Analysis of the Relation between Creative Self-Efficacy and Different Creativity

Measurements. Creativity Research Journal, 30 (1), 1–16.

Hagger, M. S., Gucciardi, D. F., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2017). On Nomological Validity and Auxiliary Assumptions: The Importance of Simultaneously Testing Effects in Social Cognitive Theories Applied to Health Behavior and Some Guidelines. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1933.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babbin, B. A., & Anderson, R. E. (2018). Multivariate data analysis. Cengage Learning.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.) SAGE.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43 (1), 115–135.

Jaiswal, N. K., & Dhar, R. L. (2016). Fostering Employee CreativitythroughTransformational Leadership: Moderating Role of Creative Self-Efficacy. Creativity Research Journal, 28 (3), 367–371.

Jaussi, K. S., Randel, A. E., & Dionne, S. D. (2007). I am, I think, I can, I do: The role of personal identity, self-efficacy, and cross-application of experiences in creativity at work. Creativity Research Journal, 19 (2–3), 247–258.

Jiang, J., & Yang, B. (2014). Does critical thinking lead to high creativity? The weakening effect of the leader-subordinate exchange in the Chinese context. Nankai Business Review, 17 (2), 117–128.

Joët, G., Usher, E. L., & Bressoux, P. (2011). Sources of self-efficacy: An investigation of elementary school students in France. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103 (3), 649–663.

Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1981). LISREL V: analysis of Linear StructuralRelations By the Method of Maximum Likelihood. International Educational Services.

Kaiser, H. F. (1970). A second-generation Little Jiffy. Psychometrika, 35 (4), 401–415.

Karwowski, M. (2012). Did Curiosity Kill the Cat? Relationship Between Trait Curiosity, Creative Self-Efficacy and Creative Personal Identity. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 8 (4), 547–558.

Karwowski, M., & Barbot, B. (2016). Creative self-beliefs: Their nature, development, and correlates. In J. C. Kaufman & J. Baer (Eds.), Cambridge companion to reason and development (pp. 302–326). Cambridge University Press.

Karwowski, M., & Beghetto, R. A. (2019). Creative Behavior as Agentic Action. Psychology of Aesthetics Creativity, and the Arts, 13 (4), 402–415.

Karwowski, M., Gralewski, J., & Szumski, G. (2015). Teachers’ effect on students’ creative self-concept is moderated by students’ gender. Learning and Individual Differences. Advance online publication, 44, 1–8.

Karwowski, M., Lebuda, I., & Beghetto, R. (2019). Creative Self-Beliefs. In J. C. Kaufman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity (pp. 396–417). Cambridge University Press.

Karwowski, M., Lebuda, I., & Wisniewska, E. (2012). Measurement of creative self-efficacy and creative role-identity. High Ability Studies, 22, 291–231.

Malik, M., Butt, A., & Choi, J. (2015). Rewards and employee creative performance: Moderating effects of creative self-eficacy, reward importance, and locus of control. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 59–74.

Mathisen, G. E. (2011). Organizational antecedents of creative self-efficacy. Creativity and Innovation Management, 20 (3), 185–195.

Mathisen, G. E., & Bronnick, K. S. (2009). Creative Self-Efficacy: An intervention study. International Journal of Educational Research, 48, 21–29.

McKay, A. S., Lovelace, J. B., & Howard, M. C. (2018). The Heart of Innovation: Antecedents and Consequences of Creative Self-Efficacy in Organizations. In R. Reiter-Palmon, V. L. Kennel, & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), Individual Creativity in the Workplace (pp. 223–244). Academic Press.

McNeish, D. (2018). Thanks coefficient alpha, we’ll take it from here. Psychological Methods, 23 (3), 412–433.

Nunnally, J., & Berstein, I. (1994). Psychometric Theory. McGraw-Hill.

Ohly, S., Pluckthun, L., & Kissel, D. (2017). Developing Students’ Creative Self-Efficacy Based on Design-Thinking: Evaluation of an Elective University Course. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 16 (1), 125–132.

Piaget, J. (1952). Origins of intelligence in the child. International Universities Press, Inc.

Piaget, J. (1978). La formation du symbole chez l’enfant: imitation, jeu et rêve, image et représentation (8eme ed.). Delacheux & Niestlé.

Puente-Díaz, R. (2016). Creative Self-Efficacy: An Exploration of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Applied Implications. The Journal of Psychology, 150 (2), 175–195.

Puente-Díaz, R., & Cavazos-Arroyo, J. (2018). An exploration of some antecedents and consequences of creative selfefficacy among college students. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 52 (3), 256–266.

Puryear, J. S., Kettler, T., & Rinn, A. N. (2019). Relating Personality and Creativity: Considering What and How We Measure. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 53 (2), 232–245.

Reise, S. P., Waller, N. G., & Comrey, A. L. (2000). Factor analysis and scale revision. Psychological Assessment, 12 (3), 287–297.

Royston, R., & Reiter-Palmon, R. (2017). Creative self-eficacy as mediator between creative mindsets and creative problem-solving. Journal of Creative Behavior, 53 (4), 472–481.

Shaw, A., Kapnek, M., & Morelli, N. A. (2021). Measuring Creative Self-Efficacy: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Creative Self-Efficacy Scale. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 678033.

Snedecor, G. W., & Cochran, W. G. (1980). Statistical Methods (7th ed.) Iowa State University Press.

Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25 (2), 173–180.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2014). Using Multivariate Statistics (6th ed.) Pearson.

Tan, A. G. (2007). Development of creativity efficacy scales. [Unpublished Manuscript]. Singapore: National Institute of Education.

Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. (2002). Creative self-efficacy: its potential antecedents and relationship to creativeperformance. Academy of Management Journal, 45 (8), 1137–1148.

Trizano-Hermosilla, I., & Alvarado, J. M. (2016). Best Alternatives to Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability in Realistic Conditions: Congeneric and Asymmetrical Measurements. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 769–769.

Tsang, S., Royse, C. F., & Terkawi, A. S. (2017). Guidelines for developing, translating, and validating a questionnaire in perioperative and pain medicine. Saudi journal of anaesthesia, 11, 80–89.

Vally, Z., Salloum, L., AlQedra, D., El Shazly, S., Albloshi, M., Alsheraifi, S., & Alkaabi, A. (2019). Examining the effects of creativity training on creative production, creative self-efficacy, and neuro-executive functioning. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 31, 70–78.

Valquaresma, A. (2020). Challenges of contemporaneity: What course to creativity? – Comprehensive exploration of the developmental role of creative self-efficacy, aesthetic judgment and schooling in creativity [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Porto].

Valquaresma, A., & Coimbra, J. (2021). Searching for creativity in the Portuguese preschool and basic education curricula. The Curriculum Journal, 00, 1–18.

Valquaresma, A., & Coimbra, J. L. (2021). Creativity, learning and technology: Lights and insights for new worldmaking possibilities in education. Creativity. Theories – Research – Applications, 8 (1), 38–51.

Weston, R., & Gore, P. A. (2006). A Brief Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. The Counseling Psychologist, 34, 719–751.

Wood, R. E., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, (14), 361–384.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.