Effect of age and type of reinforcer in the equivalence – equivalence by a partition procedure


Equivalence classes
functional classes
analogical reasoning

How to Cite

Garcia, A., Pérez González, F., Martín Vera, R., Gutiérrez Domínguez, M., Gómez Bujedo, J., Pérez Fernández, V., & Benjumea Rodriguez, S. (2011). Effect of age and type of reinforcer in the equivalence – equivalence by a partition procedure. International Journal of Psychological Research, 4(1), 7–15. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.788


Equivalence – Equivalence responding (Barnes et al., 1997), based on derived or non-explicitly trained relational responding, supports a behaviour-analytic model of analogical reasoning. Conditional discriminations are the most common procedure used to train its prerequisites. In this exploratory work we test Vaughan’s (1988) simple discrimination procedure instead to derive Eq-Eq responses in children. Two factors were assessed: type of reinforcer used (primary or secondary) and age of participants (9-10 or 12-13 years). The procedure successfully leaded to the derivation of equivalence – equivalence responses, and both factors influenced the results: selecting older children and applying primary reinforcement leaded to faster learning and better results in the equivalence – equivalence test. No interaction between factors was found. This training procedure can provide a new way to investigate the behavioural prerequisites of this important ability


Barnes, D., Hegarty, N. y Smeets, P. M. (1997). Relating equivalence relations to equivalence relations: A relational framing model of complex human functioning. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 14, 57-83.

Benjumea, S. (1993). Condicionamiento instrumental humano. In J. I. Navarro (Ed.), Aprendizaje y memoria humana. Aspectos básicos y evolutivos (pp. 441-479). Madrid: McGraw-Hill.

Bohórquez, C., García, A., Gutiérrez, M. T., Gómez, J. y Pérez, V. (2002). Efecto del entrenamiento en reflexividad y la evaluación de equivalencia en la competencia entre relaciones arbitrarias y no arbitrarias en el paradigma equivalencia-equivalencia. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2(1), 41-56.

The work that is sent to this journal must be original, not published or sent to be published elsewhere; and if it is accepted for publication, authors will agree to transfer copyright to International Journal of Psychological Research. 

To give up copyright, the authors allow that, International Journal of Psychological Research, distribute the work more broadly, check for the reuse by others and take care of the necessary procedures for the registration and administration of copyright; at the same time, our editorial board represents the interests of the author and allows authors to re-use his work in various forms. In response to the above, authors transfer copyright to the journal, International Journal of Psychological Research. This transfer does not imply other rights which are not those of authorship (for example those that concern about patents). Likewise, preserves the authors rights to use the work integral or partially in lectures, books and courses, as well as make copies for educational purposes. Finally, the authors may use freely the tables and figures in its future work, wherever make explicit reference to the previous publication in International Journal of Psychological Research. The assignment of copyright includes both virtual rights and forms of the article to allow the editorial to disseminate the work in the manner which it deems appropriate. 

The editorial board reserves the right of amendments deemed necessary in the application of the rules of publication.