Psychometric properties of the Sexual Double Standard Scale (DSS) in Chilean university people: Differences according to sex, gender attitudes, and religiosity
PDF

Keywords

double standard scale
DSS
psychometric properties
Chile
university people
sexual double standard

How to Cite

Díaz-Gutiérrez, C., Pérez, B., & Concha-Salgado, A. (2022). Psychometric properties of the Sexual Double Standard Scale (DSS) in Chilean university people: Differences according to sex, gender attitudes, and religiosity. International Journal of Psychological Research, 15(2). https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.5435

Abstract

Given the complete lack of instruments in Chile to measure the phenomenon of the sexual double standard (SDS), this study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the sexual double standard scale (DSS). The sample contained 1,036 university people from central and southern Chile. 61.1% (n = 633) were women, the average age was 20.4 years, and 31.7% (n = 259) identified as atheist or agnostic. The DSS demonstrated a unidimensional structure, excellent reliability, and evidence of convergent and discriminant validity: the higher the score in SDS, the greater the stereotypical attitudes about gender and the lower the transcendent attitudes. The religious participants obtained higher mean scores on the DSS and men obtained significantly higher SDS scores than women. In addition, the group of participants with extreme stereotypical attitudes obtained significantly higher scores on the DSS than the extreme transcendent attitudes group, in both men and women samples. Based on the evidence that links the SDS with sexual functioning and satisfaction, risky sexual practices, sexual aggression and victimization, and intimate partner violence, the DSS stands out as a contribution to the development of sex affective education programs and the identification of individuals and groups at risk.

https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.5435
PDF

References

Álvarez-Muelas, A., Gómez-Berrocal, C., & Sierra, J. C. (2021). Typologies of Sexual Double Standard Adherence in Spanish Population. The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 13 (1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.5093/ejpalc2021a1

Arcos, D., & Dewitte, M. (2021). Individual, Relational, and Sociocultural Determinants of Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Ecuador. Sexual Medicine, 9 (2), 100307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esxm.2020.100307

Armstrong, J., Thorpe, S., & Williams, D. (2021). Sexual Attitudes, Religious Commitment, and Sexual Risk Behaviours among College-Aged Women: A Feminist Theory Approach. Journal of Gender Studies, 30 (8), 875–886. https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2020.1838888

Ato, M., López, J. J., & Benavente, A. (2013). A classification system for research designs in psychology. Anales de Psicología, 29 (3), 1038–1059. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.29.3.178511

Benavente, M. C., & Vergara, C. (2006). Sexualidad en hombres y mujeres. Diversidad de miradas. FLACSO.

Caron, S. L., Davis, C. M., Halteman, W. A., & Stickle, M. (1993). Predictors of Condom-Related Behaviors Among First-Year College Students. The Journal of Sex Research, 30 (3), 252–259. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499309551709

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Crawford, M., & Popp, D. (2003). Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Methodological Critique of Two Decades of Research. Journal of Sex Research, 40 (1), 13–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490309552163

Eagly, A., & Wood, W. (1999). The Origins of Sex Differences in Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. American Psychologist, 54 (6), 408–423. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.6.408

Elgueta-Rosas, R., Santoni, A., & Fediakova, E. (2019). La persistencia de la fe: Cambios y vigencia del clivaje político-religioso en Chile (1938-2017). Estudos Ibero-Americanos, 45 (2), 149–162. https://doi.org/10.15448/1980-864X.2019.2.31335

Elosua, P., & Zumbo, B. D. (2008). Coeficientes de fiabilidad para escalas de respuesta categórica ordenada. Psicothema, 20 (4), 896–901.

Endendijk, J. J., Baar, A. L., & Dekovi, M. (2020). He is a stud, she is a slut! A meta-analysis on the continued existence of sexual double standards. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 24 (2), 163–190. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868319891310

Fasula, A. M., Carry, M., & Miller, K. S. (2014). A Multidimensional Framework for the Meanings of the Sexual Double Standard and its Application for the Sexual Health of Young Black Women in the U.S. The Journal of Sex Research, 51 (2), 170–183. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2012.716874

Fugère, M. A., Escoto, C., Cousins, A. J., Riggs, M. L., & Haerich, P. (2008). Sexual attitudes and double standards: A literature review focusing on participant gender and ethnic background. Sexuality and Culture, 12 (3), 169–182. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-008-9029-7

García-Cueto, E., Rodríguez-Díaz, F. J., Bringas-Molleda, C., López-Cepero, J., Paíno-Quesada, S., & Rodríguez-Franco, L. (2015). Development of the gender role attitudes scale (GRAS) amongst young Spanish people. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 15 (1), 61–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2014.10.004

Gómez-Berrocal, M., Vallejo-Medina, P., Moyano, N., & Sierra, J. (2019). Sexual Double Standard: A Psychometric Study From a Macropsychological Perspective Among the Spanish Heterosexual Population. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 (1869), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01869

Greene, K., & Faulkner, S. L. (2005). Gender, Belief in the Sexual Double Standard, and Sexual Talk in Heterosexual Dating Relationships 1. Sex Roles, 53, 239–251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199005-5682-6

Growth from Knowledge. (2019). Microestudio sexualidad 2019. Growth from Knowledge. https://www.docdroid.net/L8gQonK/gfk-microestudiochile3d-sexualidad-2019-pdf

Guo, Y. (2019). Sexual Double Standards in White and Asian Americans: Ethnicity, Gender, and Acculturation. Sexuality and Culture, 23 (1), 57–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-018-9543-1

Haavio-Mannila, E., & Kontula, O. (2003). Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg. Journal of Sex Research, 40 (1), 36–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490309552165

Hood, R. W., Hill, P. C., & Spilka, B. (2018). The Psychology of Religion: An Empirical Approach (5th). The Guilford Press.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6 (1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Instituto Nacional de la Juventud. (2019). 9◦ Encuesta Nacional de la Juventud 2018. Departamento de planificación y estudios. http://www.injuv.gob.cl/storage/docs/9

Kim, Y., Lee, E., & Lee, H. (2019). Sexual Double Standard, Dating Violence Recognition, and Sexual Assertiveness among University Students in South Korea. Asian Nursing Research, 13 (1), 47–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anr.2019.01.003

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.